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壮丽70年:人均寿命增长,人口素质提升
Longevity, high-quality mark new trends of China's demographic shifts

来源:中国日报    2019-10-06 09:00



        In the past 70 years, China's total population has increased to nearly 1.4 billion in 2018 from 540 million in 1949, bracing for remarkable demographic shifts toward a healthier and more educated population.        新中国成立70年来,我国人口发展经历了巨大变迁,总人口由1949年的5.4亿人发展到2018年的近14亿人,国民健康水平和受教育水平提升。
                 人均预期寿命增长一倍
        Suffering from a scarcity of food and underdeveloped healthcare, the average life expectancy of Chinese people was merely 35 years in 1949.        新中国成立之初,由于食物短缺,医疗卫生水平低下,国人平均预期寿命仅为35岁。
        However, with full basic medical coverage and significant breakthroughs in the treatment of critical illnesses achieved, the life span of Chinese people has more than doubled to 77 years in 2018.        然而,随着基本医疗全覆盖以及大病治疗方面取得的重大突破,2018年,我国人均预期寿命达到77岁,较1949年翻了一倍多。
        Meanwhile, the infant mortality rate, another important marker of the overall health of a country, also witnessed a stark contrast from 200 deaths per thousand live births since the founding of New China to 6.1 deaths per thousand live births in 2018.        与此同时,另一个衡量国民健康水平的指标——婴儿死亡率从新中国成立之初的200‰下降到2018年的6.1‰。
        Over the last few decades, China's continuous efforts to cure infectious diseases have paid off. Smallpox has been eliminated, and endemic diseases, such as iodine deficiency disorders, have been effectively controlled or eliminated.        过去几十年,我国在传染病防控方面的持续努力取得了显著成果,完全消灭了天花,基本控制或消灭了碘缺乏疾病等地方病。
        With minor illnesses no longer an issue, leading a healthy life has increasingly become the norm of Chinese people. The Chinese government has issued a Healthy China initiative to promote people's health.        小病不再是问题,健康生活日益成为国民的常态。为了提高国民健康,我国政府发起“健康中国”行动。
        Boosted by the nationwide sports vibe, the amount of active monthly users in China's fitness sports industry rose 1.7 percent year on year to 64.22 million by the end of May 2019, an industrial report showed.        一份行业报告显示,受全民运动热潮的影响,截至2019年5月底,我国体育健身产业的月活跃用户量达到6422万人,同比增长1.7%。
                 从“人口红利”到“人才红利”
        After going through a rapid growth period from 1949 to 1970, China's population has been steadily expanding at a slower pace, settling at a rate of about 0.5 percent since 1991.        1949年到1970年间,我国人口经历了高速增长阶段,1991年以来,我国人口增长率稳步下降,最终在0.5%左右的增速上保持平稳。
        Even though the world's most populous country has seen a downward trend in the number of working-age people in recent years, its gross workforce remained at about 900 million in 2018.        作为世界第一人口大国,虽然近年来我国劳动力数量也出现了下滑趋势,但2018年我国劳动年龄人口总量仍保持在9亿人左右。
        Talent dividends brought about by improved education levels, which have replaced demographic dividends as the engine boosting economic growth, are beginning to emerge as a solid base for economic development.        教育水平提升带来的人才红利已经取代人口红利成为拉动经济增长的引擎,并逐渐成为推动经济发展的重要基础。
        Over the past 70 years, the education level of Chinese people has achieved quantitative leaps from an 80-percent illiteracy rate and less than 20 percent of the primary school enrollment to having nearly one in three people with a high school diploma or above.        70年来,国民受教育水平实现量的飞跃。70年前,我国文盲率达到80%,小学入学率不足20%,如今,几乎每三人中就有一人拥有高中以上学历。
        The average schooling years of working-age people rose to 10.63 years in 2018 from just over eight years in 1982.        劳动年龄人口的平均受教育年限由1982年的刚刚超过8年提高到2018年的10.63年。
        With a more educated population, China's vast workforce will continue to offer strong support for the country's high-quality development.        随着国民受教育程度的提升,庞大的劳动力总量将继续为我国经济高质量发展提供强大支持。
                 英文来源:新华社翻译&编辑:彭娜
                
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