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‘A Very Unwelcome Feeling’: The First Women at Yale Look Back

来源:纽约时报    2019-10-31 04:43

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        When the first undergraduate women to be admitted to Yale arrived on campus 50 years ago this fall, they were outnumbered seven to one. To prepare, Yale installed full-length mirrors in the women’s dorm rooms and, to the dismay of many men, banned nudity in the gym. But there were no women’s studies classes, no women’s competitive sports and little idea how to support women at a place that was, in 1969, the oldest all-male college in the country.        50年前的这个秋天,耶鲁大学首批本科女生入学时,男生的人数是她们的七倍。作为准备工作,耶鲁大学在女生宿舍安装了一人高的镜子,并且禁止在健身房内裸体,后者让很多男生失望。但当时没有女性研究课程,没有女子竞技体育,在1969年,几乎没有人知道,在这个国家历史最悠久的男校,应当如何支持女性。
        Sixty-five percent of them had a class in which they were the only woman, according to an unpublished survey, conducted this year, of nearly half the 575 female freshmen and transfers who entered in ’69. About half never had a female instructor. Sixteen percent said they were sexually harassed by Yale professors or authorities, and the university had no system for reporting it.        今年,一项未发表的调查询问了1969年入学的575名大一女生和转校生中近半数的人,结果发现65%的人所在的班级里只有一名女生。大约一半的人从来没有过女导师。16%的人说她们受到耶鲁大学教授或领导的性骚扰,而耶鲁大学当时没有报告性骚扰的制度。
        Women weren’t allowed to have lunch at Mory’s, a private dining club where important meetings took place. They were barred from most extracurricular activities. And Yale severely limited the number of women who could be admitted, as described in a book about the class, “Yale Needs Women,” published last month by Anne Gardiner Perkins, a historian.        女性当时不被允许在莫瑞餐厅(Mory’s)吃午饭,这是一家私人用餐俱乐部,重要会议都在这里举行。她们被禁止参加大多数课外活动。而且,正如历史学家安妮·加德纳·帕金斯(Anne Gardiner Perkins)上月出版的一本关于这届男女同校班级的书《耶鲁需要女性》(Yale Needs Women)中所描述的那样,耶鲁对女性入学人数采取严格的限制措施。
        The experiences of the first women at Yale tell a bigger story about what happens when institutions that have been dominated by white men try to diversify. Yale, like many places of power, allowed women to enter. But it didn’t treat them as equals.        耶鲁第一批女生的经历讲述了一个更大的故事:当白人男性主导的机构试图多元化时会发生什么。和许多有权力的地方一样,耶鲁也允许女性进入。但它并没有平等对待她们。
        “For places like Yale or Congress or the White House, the battle for equity only begins when you open the door and let women in for the first time,” Ms. Perkins said. “It requires the institution to change.”        “对耶鲁大学、国会或白宫这样的地方来说,只有当你打开大门,让女性首次进入时,争取平等的斗争才会开始,”帕金斯说。“这需要制度的改变。”
        By 1969, most public universities and those in the Midwest and West were already coed. Elite, private and Roman Catholic institutions in the Northeast were lagging (but by 1973, most of them were coed, too).        到1969年,大多数公立大学以及中西部和西部的大学已经实现男女同校。东北部的精英学院、私人学院和罗马天主教教会学校落在了后面(但到1973年,它们也大都实现了男女同校)。
        Yale set out to educate “1,000 male leaders,” and male applicants needed to demonstrate academic achievement and leadership potential. But women weren’t assumed to be leaders, Ms. Perkins wrote. So in addition to academics, they were evaluated on grit — “a certain toughness, a pioneer quality,” Henry Chauncey Jr., an administrator at the time, told The New York Times in 1969. (The article ran alongside an ad for children’s clothing: “Girls’ styles are colorful and pretty; boys’ styles are fun-loving and rugged.”)        耶鲁的目标是培养“1000名男性领导者”, 男性申请者必须证明自己的学术成就和领导潜力。但帕金斯写道,人们并不认为女性是领导者。因此,除了学术之外,她们的评估标准是毅力——“一定的韧性,一种拓荒者的品质”,时任耶鲁管理人员小亨利·昌西(Henry Chauncey Jr.)在1969年接受《纽约时报》采访时表示。(该文旁边是一则童装广告:“女童装漂亮多彩;男童装风趣粗犷。”)
        One way to find gritty women, according to Yale? Admit those who were raised with brothers — the more the better. Of the survey respondents, 93 percent had at least one brother.        根据耶鲁的标准,怎样才能发现坚毅的女人?录取那些和兄弟一起长大的人——越多越好。在受访者中,93%的人至少有一个兄弟。
        Besides being sexist, the different admissions criteria were an acknowledgment that assimilating at Yale would largely be the responsibility of the individual women.        除了性别歧视外,不同的录取标准也显示,融入耶鲁很大程度上是这些女性自己的功劳。
        Other places of power that have diversified in the last half century have presented similar challenges, including Congress, said Representative Sheila Jackson Lee, a Texas Democrat and a member of Yale’s first coed class. At both institutions, she said, it was common to enter a room and see no other women, let alone another African-American woman like her. But she became a campus leader, in the civil rights movement and as a church deacon.        得克萨斯州民主党众议员、耶鲁大学第一个男女同校班级的成员希拉·杰克逊·李(Sheila Jackson Lee)说,过去半个世纪里,其他实现多元化的权力机构也面临着类似的挑战,包括国会。她说,在这两个机构里,过去走进一个房间,除了她自己,往往看不到其他女性,更不用说和她一样的非裔美国女性。但她后来成为民权运动的校园领袖,并担任教堂执事。
        “They were leaders in a man’s world,” she said of the first women, “and, yes, they had grit, and because they had grit, their leadership was not going to be snuffed out.”        “她们是男性世界的领导者,”她在谈到第一批女生时说,“是的,她们有勇气,因为她们有勇气,所以她们的领导力不会被扼杀。”
        “That doesn’t mean it wasn’t challenging,” she added, “because they weren’t entirely prepared for us.”        “这并不意味着没有挑战性,”她补充道,“因为他们没有完全为我们做好准备。”
        Sally Birdsall, who runs a land-use planning firm in Greenwich, N.J., studied architecture as a member of the first female class. She remembers that a professor told her she would be unable to do a building project because she had never played with an Erector Set (she had). Another warned the women attending his lecture that he did not want to hear knitting needles.        萨利·伯索尔(Sally Birdsall)在新泽西州格林威治经营一家土地使用规划公司,她也是耶鲁招的第一批女生,读的是建筑学。她记得,一位教授告诉她,她做不了建筑项目,因为她从未玩过装配模型(事实上她玩过)。另一位教授则警告来听演讲的女士们,他不想听到打毛衣的声音。
        “I was upset, not because I had a knitting needle, but I was more scared,” she said. “It just gave you a very unwelcome feeling.”        “我感到不安,不是因为编织针,更多的是害怕,”她说。“它给你一种很不受欢迎的感觉。”
        The administration had done little to incorporate women. It appointed Elga Wasserman to oversee coeducation, but she had the budget for only a secretary and an intern, Ms. Perkins said. There were no formal meet-ups for women, who were divided among 12 dorms. Female graduate students acted as advisers, but there were no trained counselors. There were three tenured female professors that year.        校方在吸纳女性方面几乎没有做什么。帕金斯说,学校任命埃尔加·沃瑟曼(Elga Wasserman)监管男女同校教育,但她只有一个秘书和一个实习生的预算。当时没有正式的女性见面会,她们被分到12间宿舍里。女研究生担任顾问,但没有训练有素的指导顾问。那一年有三位终身女教授。
        The students were at the forefront of the women’s movement of the 1970s, which demanded that women be full participants in society. Many were also involved in other causes, including abortion rights, the Black Power movement and Vietnam War protests.        这些学生是20世纪70年代女性运动的先锋,该运动要求女性充分参与社会活动。很多人还参与了其他事业,包括堕胎权、黑人权力运动(Black Power)和反越战活动。
        “In the late 1960s, as the women’s movement takes off, there are these super smart women who have been mobilized — not all wealthy, not all white — and they’re frustrated by the way the intellectual world is telling them what they’re thinking or saying is not important and shutting their doors on them,” said Kirsten Swinth, a historian at Fordham and author of “Feminism’s Forgotten Fight,” a history of the period.        “20世纪70年代末,随着女性运动起飞,这些极其聪明的女性被动员起来——不全是富人,不全是白人——她们对于知识界告诉她们,她们的所想所说无足轻重,并把她们拒之门外的作风深感不满,”福德姆大学(Fordham University)历史学家、《女性主义被遗忘的抗争》(Feminism’s Forgotten Fight)一书作者基尔斯滕·斯温思(Kirsten Swinth)说,该书记录了当时的历史。
        Ninety percent of the survey respondents said they were Democrats. Entering an all-male institution probably shaped those views, several said.        90%的受访者称他们是民主党人。一些人表示,进入一个全是男性的机构可能导致了这些观点的形成。
        Their experiences illustrate how much has changed in 50 years — and how much has not. The birth control pill was illegal for unmarried women in many states, including Connecticut (so was abortion). Yet 83 percent said they took it, according to the survey, which was privately presented at a reunion this fall of the first women and provided by an attendee. Most got a prescription from Yale’s new gynecologist, who had an agreement with the police to look the other way, Ms. Perkins wrote.        她们的经历说明了50年来发生了多少变化——又有多少还没有变化。在很多州,口服避孕药对于未婚女性属于非法,包括康涅狄格州(堕胎也是)。但根据这项调查,83%的受访者表示服用过,调查结果由一名与会者提供,在今年秋天第一批女生的聚会上私下公布。帕金斯写道,大多数人是从耶鲁大学的新任妇科医生那里得到了处方,医生与警方达成一致,对此睁一只眼闭一只眼。
        In their post-college achievements, they were unusual among American women their age, and faced challenges that have become familiar to highly educated women today: how to achieve educational, career and family goals when they’re all running on the same clock.        她们大学毕业后取得的成就,在同龄美国女性中非同寻常,并且面临着今天受过高等教育的女性并不陌生的挑战:要如何在同一时间实现教育、职业和家庭目标。
        Eighty-nine percent received advanced degrees. A third became the primary household breadwinners, and a third described themselves as homemakers. Fifty-nine percent said they faced gender discrimination that stunted their careers.        89%的学生获得了高等学位。三分之一的人成为家庭主要的经济支柱,三分之一的人称自己是全职主妇。59%的人说她们面临过阻碍职业发展的性别歧视。
        Eighty-two percent of respondents had children, and their average age of first birth was 33. The national average at the time was 21. (Today it is 26, and 30 for those with a college degree.) More than a third said they delayed having children for career reasons, and nearly a third said they struggled with infertility.        82%的受访者有孩子,她们首次生育的平均年龄为33岁。当时全国的平均水平是21岁。(今天是26岁,拥有大学学历的是30岁。)超过三分之一的人表示,她们因为职业原因推迟要孩子,近三分之一的人表示她们有生育方面的困难。
        Sixty percent said both they and their partner worked full time. But half that share said their partners shared in responsibilities like housework and cleaning.        60%的人表示,她们和伴侣都有全职工作。但其中有一半人说,她们的伴侣分担家务和打扫卫生等责任。
        “I certainly felt that with opportunity came obligation, and I needed to use my degree,” said Catherine J. Ross, a member of the first class, who also received a law degree and doctorate from Yale and is now a law professor at George Washington.        “我当然觉得机会带来了义务,我需要利用我的学位,”第一批女生当中的凯瑟琳·J·罗斯(Catherine J. Ross)说,她还从耶鲁取得了法学学位和博士学位,现在乔治·华盛顿(George Washington University)大学担任法学教授。
        “We talk a lot about how shocked we are,” she said. “We never imagined that 50 years later, women would still be struggling to be treated fairly in the workplace, to be compensated fairly and to balance work, love and family.”        “我们谈了很多令我们何等震惊的事,”她说。“我们没想到50年后,女性仍然难以在工作中得到公平对待、公平补偿,难以兼顾事业、爱情和家庭。”

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