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WTO允许中国对美国商品实施贸易制裁
W.T.O. Allows China to Impose Trade Sanctions on U.S. Goods

来源:纽约时报    2019-11-04 03:01



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        The World Trade Organization gave China the go-ahead on Friday to impose sanctions on up to $3.6 billion of American goods in a fight over unfairly cheap Chinese goods, a decision that is likely to further inflame the Trump administration’s antipathy toward the global trade body.        在一场围绕中国商品倾销展开的争斗中,世界贸易组织(WTO)上周五允许中国对价值达36亿美元的美国商品实施制裁,这一决定可能将进一步激起特朗普政府对这家全球贸易组织的反感。
        The ruling is the final decision in a case China brought against the United States nearly six years ago that stemmed from levies placed on more than 40 Chinese goods. The duties were imposed during the Obama administration, but the practice they were intended to curb remains one of the Trump administration’s biggest economic concerns about China.        这是对近六年前中国对美国发起的一项诉讼的最终裁决,该诉讼源于40多种中国商品被强征关税。这些关税是在奥巴马执政期间实施的,但它们意欲遏制的行为仍是特朗普政府在经济方面对中国最大的担忧之一。
        At issue are subsidies that the United States has accused China of providing to its companies so that they can sell goods more cheaply overseas. To stop China from flooding the American market with dozens of low-cost Chinese products — including solar panels, furniture, shrimp, steel pipe, tires and washing machines — the United States imposed “anti-dumping duties” on those goods.        争论的焦点是,美国指责中国向本国企业提供补贴,以便它们能够在海外以更低廉的价格销售商品。为了阻止数十种低成本的中国产品充斥美国市场——包括太阳能电池板、家具、虾、钢管、轮胎和洗衣机——美国对这些产品征收了“反倾销税”。
        A 2017 decision by the World Trade Organization found that the United States had not followed the global trade body’s rules in the way it imposed the duties. On Friday, the W.T.O. gave China the green light to try to recoup some of the losses it sustained by imposing enough tariffs on American goods to block $3.6 billion worth of American exports to China.        世界贸易组织2017年的一项决定显示,美国的征税方式不符合该全球性贸易组织的规则。上周五,世界贸易组织给中国开了绿灯,允许它通过对美国商品征收足额关税来限制美国对中国价值36亿美元商品的出口,从而弥补中国遭受的部分损失。
        China has not yet indicated which American products it will hit with tariffs and it is unclear whether the United States would retaliate. Under the W.T.O. rules, China can keep the tariffs in place until the United States changes its behavior or the two countries agree to some type of resolution.        中国尚未表明将对哪些美国产品征收关税,也不清楚美国是否会采取报复措施。根据世界贸易组织的规定,在美国改变其行为或两国同意某种解决方案之前,中国可以保持关税不变。
        A Trump administration official said that the United States was “disappointed” by the decision, saying that it overstated the financial effect on China and used an approach that “has no foundation in economic analysis.” He added that the United States did not plan to change the practices that the W.T.O. had objected to, including how it determines the level of duties it should impose on Chinese goods. That means any tariffs China imposes could remain in place indefinitely.        特朗普政府的一位官员说,美国对这一决定感到失望,称它夸大了对中国的经济影响,并称其所使用的方法“没有经济分析依据”。他还说,美国不打算改变世界贸易组织所反对的做法,包括如何决定对中国商品的关税水平。这意味着中国所征收的任何关税都可能无限期地保持不变。
        The case is separate from President Trump’s trade war with China, which has taken place outside of World Trade Organization rules and resulted in the United States placing tariffs on $360 billion worth of Chinese goods.        该案并不属于特朗普总统与中国之间的贸易战的一部分,后者是在世界贸易组织规则之外进行的,已经导致美国对价值3600亿美元的中国商品加征关税。
        But it could further complicate relations between the world’s two largest economies as they try to reach an agreement to end their yearlong trade fight. China has already retaliated against the United States with tariffs on roughly $100 billion worth of American products and Mr. Trump has dangled the possibility of additional tariffs if Beijing does not agree to the administration’s demands. Both sides have already suffered economic pain from the tit-for-tat tariffs.        但在双方试图达成协议、结束一年之久的贸易战时,这一结果可能会使世界最大的两个经济体之间的关系进一步复杂化。中国已经采取报复措施,对价值约1000亿美元的美国商品征收关税。如果北京不同意美国政府的要求,特朗普先生也不排除进一步增加关税的可能。双方都因针锋相对的关税而遭受了经济上的痛苦。
        Beijing could use the threat of these tariffs as a source of leverage in trade negotiations. But China, which imports far fewer American goods than it exports to the United States, has been reluctant to increase the tariffs it has already imposed, because it could raise costs for essential products like medical devices and food.        中国政府可以利用这些关税带来的威胁,作为贸易谈判的筹码。但由于其进口的美国商品远少于出口到美国的商品,中国一直不愿提高已征收的关税,因为这可能会增加医疗器械和食品等必需品的成本。
        “We do not believe the arbitrator’s decision will have any impact on continuing trade discussions between the United States and China,” the Trump administration official said.        “我们认为,仲裁决定不会对美中之间仍在进行的贸易谈判产生任何影响,”前述特朗普政府官员说。
        The ruling could have bigger consequences for the future of the W.T.O. The administration has already criticized the global trade body, including its inability to write rules that deter China from providing generous subsidies to its industries.        这一裁决对世界贸易组织的未来的影响可能要更大一些。美国政府已经对这一全球贸易组织提出了批评,包括它无法制定规则以阻止中国对其产业提供丰厚补贴。
        In part through the use of state-owned enterprises, China has built giant industries to manufacture steel, aluminum, solar panels and other products that have flooded global markets with low-cost products and put American competitors out of business. The country threatens to do the same in emerging industries like new-energy vehicles and semiconductors, American officials say. But the W.T.O. defines subsidies narrowly, for example excluding cheap inputs from Chinese state-owned firms.        中国建起钢铁、铝、太阳能电池板及其它产品的庞大工业,一定程度上就是通过利用国有企业。这些产业用低成本产品充斥了全球市场,并迫使美国竞争对手出局。美国官员说,该国威胁要在新能源汽车和半导体等新兴产业采取同样措施。但世界贸易组织对补贴的定义很狭隘,例如排除了来自中国国有企业的廉价投入品。
        Clete Willems, a partner at Akin Gump who left the White House earlier this year, said the ruling exemplified some of the administration’s most significant concerns about the W.T.O., — its failure to come to terms with the role of the state in China’s economy.        今年早些时候从白宫离职的艾金·岗波律师事务所(Akin Gump)的合伙人克莱特·威廉斯(Clite Willems)说,这一裁决突显出美国政府对世界贸易组织最主要的一些忧虑——它未能正视政府在中国经济中扮演的角色。
        “As a result, China is permitted to get away with behavior that wouldn’t be tolerated in any normal market economy,” Mr. Willems said. “The ruling defangs our ability to counteract subsidies provided by Chinese state-owned enterprises.”        “因此,中国的那些在任何正常市场经济中都不被允许的行为得以逃脱惩罚”,威廉斯说。“这项裁决削弱了我们对抗中国国有企业补贴的能力。”
        The Trump administration has embraced other W.T.O. rulings in the favor of the United States, including a decision earlier this week on a challenge to Indian export subsidies and a ruling in early October that allowed the United States to retaliate in response to European Union subsidies to plane maker Airbus.        特朗普政府此前对其他一些有利于美国的世界贸易组织裁决表示过欢迎,包括本周早些时候就一项对印度出口补贴的异议做出的裁决,以及10月初一项允许美国对欧盟补贴飞机制造商空中客车(Airbus)的行为进行报复的裁决。
        But it has simultaneously taken aim at other functions of the W.T.O., and in particular pushed part of the system that settles trade disputes to the breaking point.        但政府同时也在攻击WTO的其他职能,尤其将这个系统中负责调解贸易争端的那部分推向了临界点。
        The Trump administration has been blocking new appointments to the part of the W.T.O. that considers appeals on trade disputes, in what the United States says is an effort to persuade the body to make certain changes. As of Dec. 10, the so-called appellate body will no longer have enough members to hear cases, leaving some trade disputes without a final verdict.        特朗普政府一直在阻止世界贸易组织负责贸易争端诉讼的机构做出新的任命,称这是为了说服该机构做出某些改变。自12月10日起,所谓的上诉机构将不再有足够的成员来审理案件,这将导致一些贸易争端无法得到最终裁决。
        Trump administration officials say privately that the shuttering of the appellate body will be no great loss. But others do not share that opinion. The concern, says Jennifer Hillman, a former W.T.O. appellate body member and an expert at the Council on Foreign Relations, is that countries may begin taking matters into their own hands.        特朗普政府官员私下表示,上诉机构的关闭不会造成太大损失。但其他人并不同意这种观点。前世界贸易组织上诉机构成员、外交关系委员会(Council on Foreign Relations)专家詹妮弗·希尔曼(Jennifer Hillman)表示,人们担心的是,各国可能会开始自行其是。
        If countries turn away from the W.T.O. system and impose tariffs on each other outside of global trade rules, that increases the risk of damaging trade wars and protectionism that could weigh on the economy.        如果各国放弃世界贸易组织体系,并不顾全球贸易规则对彼此加征关税,这就增加了出现破坏性贸易战和保护主义的风险,从而给经济带来压力。
        “Immediately you have the crisis of what to do about all the pending appeals that will no longer ever be completed, and whether the parties to those appeals are going to start taking unilateral action,” Ms. Hillman said.        “你会马上面临这样的危机,如何处理所有这些再也无法了结的未决上诉,以及上诉各方是否将开始采取单边行动,”希尔曼说。
                
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