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巴塔哥尼亚国家公园的诞生
With 10 Million Acres in Patagonia, a National Park System Is Born

来源:纽约时报    2019-11-04 03:35



        COCHRANE, Chile — An eagle soared over the lone house atop an arid hill in the steppes of Patagonia Park.        智利科克伦——一只雄鹰翱翔在巴塔哥尼亚公园干草原一处干旱丘陵顶的独屋上空。
        In the valley below, not far from the town of Cochrane, President Michelle Bachelet announced the creation of a vast national park system in Chile stretching from Hornopirén, 715 miles south of the capital, Santiago, to Cape Horn, the southern tip of South America, where Chile splinters into fjords and canals.        在下面的山谷里,离考科克伦镇不远的地方,米歇尔·巴切莱特(Michelle Bachelet )总统宣布在智利创立一个巨大的国家公园体系,它从首都圣地亚哥以南715英里的奥尔诺皮伦一直延伸至合恩角,那是南美洲的最南端,智利在那里分裂成许多峡湾与运河。
        The park is the brainchild of Kristine McDivitt Tompkins and her husband, Douglas Tompkins, who founded the North Face and Esprit clothing companies, and starting in 1991, put $345 million — much of his fortune — buying large swaths of Patagonia.        建这个公园是克里斯汀·麦克迪维特·汤普金斯(Kristine McDivitt Tompkins)和丈夫道格拉斯·汤普金斯(Kristine McDivitt Tompkins)的主意。后者是North Face和Esprit这两个服装品牌的创始人,他于1991开始,投入3.45亿美元(相当于他的大部分财富)购买了巴塔哥尼亚的大片土地。
        As Ms. Bachelet spoke about the creation of the park network, Ms. Tompkins looked up and gasped, watching the eagle circling above the house, which she owns; águila, or eagle, was the radio call name of her husband.        在巴切莱特谈到该公园的创建时,汤普金斯女士仰起头,看着老鹰在她的房子上空盘旋,倒抽了一口气;老鹰,曾经是她丈夫的无线电呼叫名。
        Mr. Tompkins died at 72 in December 2015, after a kayaking accident in Patagonia. Months before, Tompkins Conservation, an umbrella group of conservation initiatives the couple directed, proposed a deal to the Chilean government: It would donate more than one million acres of their preserved and restored territory to Chile if the government committed additional lands and designated new parks to create a Patagonian national park network.        汤普金斯先生因为在巴塔哥尼亚的一次皮划艇事故,于 2015年12月去世,终年72岁。数月前,由这对夫妻执掌的保护倡议伞形团体汤普金斯自然保护基金会(Tompkins Conservation)向智利政府提出一项交易:只要智利政府同意拿出更多的土地,并且指定新的公园以建立一个巴塔哥尼亚国家公园体系,他们就会将自己保护和恢复的100多万英亩土地捐给智利。
        The Bachelet administration ended up contributing nine million acres, more than the couple had proposed, creating five new national parks and expanding an additional three. The deal was a rare victory for conservation efforts in a region where mining, logging and agriculture are increasingly threatening ecosystems and forests.        巴切莱特政府最终拨出了900万英亩的土地,超出了汤普金斯夫妇的提议,还创立了五个新的国家公园,并扩建了另外三个。对于一个采矿、伐木和农业越来越威胁到生态系统和森林的地方,这项交易是自然资源保护举措的一次罕见胜利。
        It was a partnership, Ms. Tompkins said in an interview, “a real model to do large-scale conservation and create national parks in a public-private way.”        这是一种合作关系,汤普金斯女士在一次采访中说道,“一个以公私合作的方式进行大规模保育和创建国家公园的真正范例”。
        The resulting 10 million-acre Patagonia National Park system is more than three times the size of the Yosemite and Yellowstone parks combined. It expands Chile’s national parklands by nearly 40 percent, enlarging the area of protection for pumas, condors, flamingos and endangered deer species.        由此造就的巴塔哥尼亚国家公园系统占地1000万英亩,比优胜美地和黄石公园加起来的三倍还要大。它将智利的公家公园面积增加了将近40%,还扩大了美洲狮、秃鹫、火烈鸟和濒危鹿类的保护区域。
        By April 2019, the parks the Tompkinses donated will be run by Chile’s National Forestry Service; one will be renamed for Mr. Tompkins.        2019年4月,汤普金斯所捐赠的公园交由国家林业服务局运营;其中一个公园将以汤普金斯先生的名字重新命名。
        The parks are “good not only for Chile, but for the planet,” Ms. Bachelet said in an interview. “It shows that you don’t have to be a rich country to make these kinds of decisions. It only requires will and courage.”        这些公园“不仅对智利有好处,而且对整个地球也有好处”,巴切莱特女士在一次访谈中说道。“这表明,你不一定非得是一个富裕的国家才能做出这类决定。只需要意志和勇气就行。”
        Among some locals, though, reaction has been ambivalent. The mayor of Cochrane did not even attend the announcement in late January.        当地人的反应则有点矛盾。科克伦的市长甚至没有出席一月下旬的宣布仪式。
        Getting to the site where the ceremony took place that windy morning required a seven-hour drive south from the closest airport, in Balmaceda, near the border with Argentina.        在那个刮风的早晨前往举行仪式的地方,需要从最近的机场驱车七个小时,机场位于靠近阿根廷边境的巴尔马塞达 。
        Along the way, unpaved roads wind through looming mountains, flanked by turquoise rivers and the seemingly endless General Carrera Lake.        沿途,未经铺砌的野路穿过隐约可见的山峰,侧面是青绿色的河流和仿佛无边无际的卡雷拉将军湖。
        Grasslands dotted with guanacos, a cousin of the camel, give way to sprawling steppes and forests, deep-blue waterways and majestic snow-capped mountains at the doorsteps of breathtaking ice fields.        点缀着原驼(骆驼的近亲)的草地,逐渐让位于辽阔的干草原和森林,而深蓝色的水道和壮丽的雪山,就在令人屏息的冰原脚下。
        “It is a wonderful coincidence to be here this day,” said John Rosenblum, the retired dean of the University of Virginia’s business school, who was visiting the park with his son the day of the announcement.        “今天能在这里真是太巧了,”弗吉尼亚大学商学院已经退休的院长约翰·罗森布鲁姆说道,宣布仪式那天他正好和儿子在公园游览。 
        Mr. Tompkins traveled through Patagonia in 1961, when he was 18, an adventure seeker and rock climber. He bought his first lands there 30 years later — the 42,000-acre Reñihué farm in Los Lagos region, which he converted to organic agriculture.        汤普金斯先生在1961年的时候旅行穿越了巴塔哥尼亚,那时他18岁,喜欢探险和攀岩。30年后,他在那里买下了自己的第一块土地,那是位于洛斯拉戈斯地区占地4.2万英亩的雷尼韦农场,他把这里改造成了有机农场。
        The couple married in 1993, after Ms. McDivitt retired from the outdoor apparel company Patagonia, where she had risen to chief executive. They began “a very nomadic life looking at conservation projects in Chile and Argentina,” she said.        这对夫妇于1993年结婚,当时麦克迪维特女士已经从她担任首席执行官的户外服装品牌巴塔哥尼亚(Patagonia)退休。他们开始了“一种关注智利和阿根廷保护项目的流浪生活”。
        In partnership with the philanthropist Peter Buckley, the Tompkins purchased 208,000 more acres near the Corcovado volcano, south of Reñihué. They also bought more land further south, and large tracts in northeastern Argentina, which they are currently donating, in four stages, to the Argentine government.        汤普金斯夫妇与慈善家彼得·巴克利合作,在雷尼韦农场以南靠近科尔科瓦多火山的地方又买下20.8万英亩土地。他们还在更远的南部和阿根廷东北部购买了大片土地。目前,他们正在分四个阶段将这些土地捐给阿根廷政府。
        Over the years, they continued buying property, largely from absent landowners, developing the more than 700,000-acre Pumalín Park, made mostly of temperate rain forests including the millenary alerce tree, a relative of the California redwood.        多年来,他们主要是从在外地主(absent landowners)手里持续买地,并且开发占地超过70万英亩的普马林公园,这个公园主要由温带雨林组成,包括有着超过千年树龄的山达木树,这种树是加州红杉的亲系。
        The valleys were used for ecological farming, and luxury cabins, camping sites, hiking trails and other infrastructure were built to open the park to the public.        山谷用于发展生态农业,公园里建造了奢华木屋、野营地、徒步路径和其他基础设施,向公众开放。
        Suddenly, the Tompkinses were at the center of national security concerns.        突然,汤普金斯夫妇站在了国家安全忧虑的风口浪尖。
        Politicians and the military argued that Pumalín Park, which crosses the narrow space between the Pacific Ocean and the Argentine border, cut the country in two, jeopardizing national sovereignty.        政客们和军方声称,跨越了太平洋和阿根廷边境之间狭窄空间的普马林公园,将这个国家一分为二,危及国家主权。
        Business leaders and landowners accused Mr. Tompkins of impeding economic development. Nationalists said he was secretly creating a Zionist enclave in Patagonia.        商界领袖们和土地持有者指控汤普金斯先生阻碍经济发展。民族主义者称呼,他正在巴塔哥尼亚秘密地创立一个犹太复国主义飞地。 
        Leftist parties were alarmed that an American businessman was buying big chunks of Chile. The Roman Catholic Church objected to the Foundation for Deep Ecology, which Mr. Tompkins founded in 1990 in San Francisco, saying it sought population-control.        左翼政党对一个美国商人大肆购置土地十分警惕。罗马天主教会反对汤普金斯先生于1990年在旧金山创立的深层生态基金会(Foundation for Deep Ecology),声称它试图进行人口控制。
        Mr. Tompkins was vilified in the conservative news media, interrogated by congressional commissions and threatened with deportation.        汤普金斯先生还遭到保守派新闻媒体的诋毁,被国会委员会质询,面临着驱逐出境的威胁。
        Then, in 2005, the Tompkinses began donating land to the Chilean government to create a park. That same year, the government designated Pumalín a nature sanctuary.        随后,2005年,汤普金斯夫妇开始向智利政府捐赠土地以创立公园。同年,智利政府将普马林指定为自然保护区。
        By then, Tompkins Conservation had bought another large parcel of land, a 764,000-acre sheep farm in Valle Chacabuco, which it named Patagonia Park. Local ranchers and farmers objected to the purchase, saying their traditional livelihoods were being disrupted.        那时,汤普金斯自然保护基金会又买下一大块地,位于查卡布科山谷一个76.4万英亩的牧羊场,它被命名为巴塔哥尼亚公园。当地的农场经营者和农民都反对这项购买,声称他们的传统生计将受到破坏。
        With the help of international donors and partners, the group took down more than 400 miles of fencing, removed 25,000 sheep and again built high-end lodges, campgrounds, hiking trails and roads, developing programs to restore natural ecosystems and to reintroduce wildlife to their natural habitats.        得益于国际上的捐赠者和合作伙伴的帮助,这个团体拆除了超过400英里的栅栏,移走了2.5万只绵羊,再一次修建了高级的木屋、营地、徒步路径和道路,制定了恢复自然生态系统、将野生动物重新引入自然栖息地的计划。 
        “There is something about the expanse of Patagonia, a kind of haunting soulfulness to it that affects you physically,” Ms. Tompkins said the day the new park network was announced. “Few places like this one grab you and hold on to you like it happened to Doug and I.”        “关于巴塔哥尼亚的广袤,它所带来的一种萦绕于心的精神实实在在地影响着你,”汤普金斯女士在宣布新公园网络的那天说道。“很少有地方像这里这样,抓住你、紧紧拥住你,就像发生在道格和我身上的一样。”
                
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