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总统竞选辩论,一场形象大战
What Political Branding Looks Like

来源:纽约时报    2019-11-04 03:39



        As 20 of the Democrats vying for the party’s presidential nomination took to the stage for the first debates of the primary season on Wednesday and Thursday, it is critical, sayeth the pundits, that each one maximizes his or her impact and stands out from the crowd.        周三和周四,20名争夺本党总统提名的民主党人登上首场初选辩论的舞台,权威专家有言,每个人都应该实现自己的存在感最大化,在众人中冒出头来,这一点至关重要。
        But how much standing out can occur when the rules dictate 60 seconds of response time per candidate and 30 seconds of follow-up, meaning each will have, at most, six to 10 minutes, total, to make a case? It’s hard to imagine.        但按照规则,每位候选人有60秒的时间回答问题,另有30秒的后续补充,这意味着加起来,每人最多有6至10分钟做陈述,究竟能在多大程度上脱颖而出?很难想象。
        Until you consider that each candidate will be onstage for another 110 minutes — albeit silently. And in that silence lies a whole other communication opportunity.        直到你细想一下,发现每个候选人除了发言以外,还要在台上待110分钟——虽然是默不作声的。而这种沉默中蕴含着另一种完全不同的沟通契机。
        “When I do media training, I always tell my clients 10 percent of how you are received is what you actually said,” said Hilary Rosen, a Democratic strategist and media consultant with SKDKnickerbocker. “Fifteen percent is how you said what you said, and 75 percent is how you appear.”        “在做媒体培训时,我总会告诉客户,别人对你的看法,有10%是来自你实际说过的话,”民主党策略师、公关公司SKDKnickerbocker媒体顾问希拉里·罗森(Hilary Rosen)说。“15%是你怎么说、说什么,75%是你的形象。”
        Or rather: how you can influence opinion through image making. These are televised debates, after all, and there’s a reason we in the audience are called “viewers.”        确切地说:如何通过形象的塑造影响舆论。毕竟这是电视辩论,我们这些受众被称作“观众”也是有原因的。
        “If you are a strategist for one of the top-tier or second-tier candidates, you are thinking through every element of presentation, whether it’s tie color, lapel pin or expression,” said Jen Psaki, a White House communications director in the Obama administration. “And you are doing it with the knowledge that a big part of the way voters make decisions is based on the visual representation the candidate projects.”        “如果你是一线或二线候选人的策略师,你会仔细考虑每一个表现元素,无论是领带颜色、翻领别针还是表情,”奥巴马政府白宫通讯联络主管珍·萨基(Jen Psaki)说。“并且这么做的同时,你同样明白选民做决定的方式在很大程度上是基于候选人的视觉呈现。”
        Thanks to both the Trump-driven mediagenics of this particular political moment, when going viral is as crucial as going door to door, and the crowded field, the need to make yourself memorable, and imprint your likeness on the retinas of the electorate, has become a campaign imperative. No matter what gender the candidate.        由于这个特定政治时刻的特朗普驱动媒体遗传学——在网上形成病毒式传播和挨家挨户去敲门一样关键,也由于赛场的拥挤程度,让人记住你,让你的形象印刻在选民视网膜上,在竞选中已经是必不可少。无论候选人是男性还是女性。
        “Men have just as much of a challenge as women,” Ms. Rosen said, pointing out that President Trump understands this implicitly. “He got the last laugh with his hair. And his long tie. He crafted a look, and it helped him stand out.”        “男性和女性面临的挑战一样大,”罗森说,并指出特朗普总统肯定了解这一点。“他凭着他的发型笑到了最后。还有他的长领带。他精心设计了一个造型,借此脱颖而出。”
        To compete, his rivals will have to engage in the same way. “In the back of everyone’s mind will be, ‘How will that person look on a debate stage with Donald Trump?’” Ms. Rosen said.        要与之竞争,他的对手们必须采用同样的方式。“每个人内心深处都在想,‘那个人和唐纳德·特朗普同台辩论会是什么样?’”罗森说。
        A few of those running seem to have grasped this reality more firmly than others. Indeed, a handful of the candidates have been relentlessly consistent in defining their own image.        一些竞选者似乎比其他人更稳固地把握住了这一现实。事实上,少数候选人在定义自己的形象方面一直都坚持做到前后一致。
        Some of that can be attributed to what Ms. Rosen calls the “Steve Jobs rationale” — reducing both packing and the daily decision-making process of getting dressed frees up brain space for other issues — and some to the desire for keeping clothes from being a subject of conversation. (If you wear the same thing all the time, you don’t leave people much to say.)        其中一部分可归结为罗森所说的“史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)理念”——减少形象包装和日常穿戴决策程序有助于腾出心思应对其他问题,另一部分也是希望避免穿着成为议论的话题。(如果你一直穿一样的衣服,就不会给人留下太多话可说。)
        But it also has the subconscious effect of essentially creating an emoji for the self, a visual shorthand for values and platforms in a time when — bemoan it or not — we increasingly communicate in pictogram shorthand.        但它也有潜意识效果,本质上是创建自己的个人表情符号,在一个——无论你觉得是喜是悲——我们越来越多地用表情符号交流的时代,它是对价值观和施政纲领的一种简约的视觉表达。
        There’s no question that on the debate stage decorum dictates that most participants will play it safe in the classic suit and tie (if relevant). But details matter, and certain precedents have been set.        毫无疑问,辩论舞台的礼仪意味着大多数选手都会保险起见,采用经典的套装和领带(有必要的话)。但细节很重要,已经有一些前车之鉴。
        So, which candidates speak the most clearly when they are not saying anything at all?        那么,哪些候选人在全然不出声的同时,发出了最清晰的声音呢?
        Pete Buttigieg        彼特·巴蒂吉格(Pete Buttigieg)
        The 37-year-old mayor from South Bend, Ind., has been a savant at using his costume to frame his communications. Relentless in his allegiance to a pristine white shirt, pressed navy dress slacks and a narrow marine blue tie, almost always sans suit jacket, he manages to look Just Like Us (or at least just like the guy from the J. Crew catalog everyone gets).        在运用服装作为沟通框架方面,现年37岁的印第安纳州南本德市市长一直是个专家。凭借永远一件纯白衬衫、一条笔挺的海军蓝休闲裤和海蓝色窄领带,以及几乎从不穿外套,他塑造了一副“就像我们一样”的形象(或者至少像那个人手一册的J. Crew商品目录上的家伙)。
        At the same time, however, he also looks like a one-off in his focus and decision-making capability. (How many of us have the discipline to wear the same thing every single day?)        与此同时,在着眼点和决策能力上,他又显得与众不同。(我们多少人有这样的自律,天天穿一模一样的衣服?)
        It is notable that unlike many of his generation, who eschew the tie when attempting to differentiate themselves from their forebears, he has chosen to drop the jacket. That, along with the tie width, give him new-gen cred to go with his new-gen pitch.        值得注意的是,和许多同辈人避开领带以试图将自己与上辈人区别开来的做法不同,他选择去掉外套。这一点,配上窄领带,给了他与自己的新一代计划相匹配的新一代风貌。
        But the fact that he still wears a tie, plus at least half of a suit, suggests respect for the establishment’s traditions, and reassures more conservative voters that the first major gay presidential candidate is not so different from them after all. The color scheme implies blue sky thinking, and the net effect is Boy Scout next door, which, if you are trying to convince older voters of your seriousness of purpose, is badge worthy.        但他仍打领带、穿半身正装的事实表明,他尊重建制传统,也让大多数保守派选民放心,首位主要的同性恋总统候选人到头来和他们也没有太大不同。配色暗示了蓝天思维,最终效果是一种邻家童子军形象,如果你的目标是让年长选民相信你的笃诚,这一点是很有说服力的。
        “It’s about consistency,” said Lyn Paolo, a costume designer who worked on “Scandal” and “The West Wing.” If you are consistent, people get an image of you in their heads, and you have carved out a specific space.”        “重要的是保持始终如一,”《丑闻》(Scandal)和《白宫风云》(The West Wing)的服装设计师琳恩·帕奥罗(Lyn Paolo)说。“如果你始终如一,就会在人们脑海中留下印象,于是你就开辟出了一个特定空间。”
        “I use the Halloween rule: Could someone be dressed for Halloween as this candidate and be immediately recognizable?” she said. For Mr. Buttigieg, the answer is yes.        “我用的是万圣节规则:有没有人能在万圣节装扮成这名候选人,并立刻被认出来?”她说。对巴蒂吉格而言,答案是肯定的。
        Elizabeth Warren        伊丽莎白·沃伦(Elizabeth Warren)
        Along with Mayor Pete, Senator Warren is the candidate with the most clarity in her wardrobe. She has a plan for it! Well, duh.        和彼特市长一样,沃伦参议员是着装信息最为明确的候选人。她还有一套计划呢!废话,当然有计划。
        Her uniform is black pants — “You get the sense she probably has 20 of the same pair of black pants,” Ms. Paolo said — and a black shell with any one of a number of jewel-tone jackets with three-quarter-length sleeves and small lapels. Stud earrings are her only adornment.        黑裤子是她的制服——“你会觉得她很可能有20条同款的黑裤子,”帕奥罗说——一层黑色的壳,外面是某一种宝石色调的八分袖、小翻领夹克。耳钉是她唯一的饰品。
        Off the stump she often swaps a cardigan for the jacket, but the sleeves are pushed up, in the equivalent of the rolling-up-one’s-sleeves-and-getting-to-work visual favored by many male candidates, and the silhouette is broadly the same.        不作政治巡回演说时,她常常把夹克改成开衫,但袖子挽起,营造出许多男性候选人常用的“撸起袖子加油干”的视觉效果,廓形大致上相同。
        It is a highly economic way of dressing: streamlined but easily noticeable; unostentatious but animated; thoroughly parsed. Sound familiar?        这是一种颇为经济的着装方式:简易却引人注意;素朴而有活力;严丝合缝。听起来很耳熟吧?
        Joe Biden        乔·拜登(Joe Biden)
        With his gleaming white teeth and gleaming slicked-back white hair, his many striped shirts and ties and his aviator shades, the former vice president has a D.C. Top Gun-meets-power-casual-club cool that suggests exactly his selling point: He’s the one who can compete with the guy in office.        凭借白亮的牙齿和向后梳起的闪亮银发、他的许多条纹衬衫和领带和他的飞行员墨镜,这位前副总统有一种华盛顿精英结合“强力休闲”会所风的酷感,恰到好处地传递着他的卖点:他是能和那个在任的家伙比拼的人。
        Mr. Biden is one of the few candidates who still hews to the flag-pin-on-his-lapel, once considered a de rigueur accessory to demonstrate patriotism but now perhaps a relic of an older generation. (If you’re too cool for a jacket, after all, you can’t wear a lapel pin.)        拜登是少数仍佩戴旗帜翻领别针的参选者之一,这曾是社交礼仪上展示爱国心的必要配饰,如今或许是老一代的传统。(毕竟,如果你酷到不穿外套,也没法佩戴翻领别针。)
        It’s a choice that can work both for and against him. It signals his experience (plus!) but also his long time in Washington (er …), which also suggests his long record of photo ops, which mimics his long record of evolved thinking on various issues.        这个选择于他可能既有利也有弊。它显示出他的阅历(加分!)还有他在华盛顿的老资格(呃……),同时也让人想到他的各种合影,进而反映他在许多问题上的态度“演变”。
        And speaking of those photo ops, they have given rise to some speculation over the years about certain evolutions in his appearance: that his hair looks fuller, his teeth straighter, his forehead less lined. Maybe it’s the lighting, maybe not, but this could take the conversation in a distracting direction.        说到那些合影,多年来它们也让人开始揣测他的外形出现了某些演变:他的头发看上去变多了,牙齿变齐了,前额皱纹少了。这或许是灯光,或许不是,但可能会把话题带偏。
        Cory Booker        科里·布克(Cory Booker)
        Though the New Jersey senator famously underwent something of a makeover when he became mayor of Newark, excising pleated pants and working on his tie knots, he is thus far the only candidate who has committed a real fashion faux pas, pairing a red fleece vest with a short-sleeve shirt and oversize jeans a few years ago and still getting roundly roasted for it on Twitter.        这位新泽西州参议员在成为纽瓦克市长后曾经有一次著名的转型,穿起了打褶裤,在领带结上花了些心思,但他是目前为止唯一一位真正在服装上失过态的候选人,几年前他曾穿着红色抓绒背心配短袖衬衫和肥大的牛仔裤,至今还是推特上争相嘲弄的对象。
        But given his high-gloss persona, helped by his relationship with the movie star Rosario Dawson, and his high-gloss head, it served to humanize him (especially when he joined the chorus and poked fun at himself).        但考虑到他极富光彩的人设,他和影星罗莎里奥·唐森(Rosario Dawson)的友谊,还有他锃亮的脑门,都让他更具亲和力(尤其是当他自己也参与到取笑自己的热潮中)。
        Senator Booker has been the most relaxed and communicative of the group about his clothing, much as he was one of the first to embrace the selfie trend, the better to model that elusive quality he is sometimes accused of lacking: “authenticity.”        在穿着上,布克参议员一直是这群候选人中最随意也最擅沟通的一位,他同样也是最早接受自拍潮流的人之一,后者更适宜塑造他有时被指缺乏的那种难以捉摸的品质:“真实性”。
        The question now is whether he can distinguish himself further — also an issue for Amy Klobuchar, whose “senator next door” (to quote her book title) ethos, as expressed in her boxy, bright jackets and patterned scarves, skews more than any other candidate toward the Hillary Clinton continuum.        如今的问题在于,他是否能进一步突出自己的特色——这同样是艾米·克洛布查尔(Amy Klobuchar)的问题,她四四方方的亮色夹克和图案围巾透出的“邻家参议员”(引用她的书名)气质,比其他所有候选人都更接近希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)的接班人。
                
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