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On Day 1 of Broad Lockdown, a Debate Arises: Can Italians Follow the Rules?

来源:纽约时报    2020-03-09 06:15

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        ROME — Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte ended his 2:15 a.m. news conference to announce the extraordinary lockdown of Italy’s north with a plea that other heads of state may not have felt compelled to make.        罗马——意大利总理朱塞佩·孔特(Giuseppe Conte)在凌晨2点15分的新闻发布会上宣布对意大利北部实施严厉封锁,他发出了其他国家政府首脑可能还不觉得有必要的呼吁。
        “We must understand that we all must stick to and we must not counteract these measures,” he urged in the early hours of Sunday morning. “We must not try and be clever.”        “我们必须明白,我们所有人都必须坚持执行,我们不能抵制这些措施,”他在周日凌晨敦促道。“我们千万不要自作聪明。”
        Mr. Conte had just decreed a series of measures that amounted to the largest clampdown against the coronavirus outbreak in the Western world, restricting the movement of about a quarter of Italy's population and jeopardizing its economy.        孔特颁布了一系列措施,成为西方世界面对冠状病毒疫情展开的最严厉举措,它限制了意大利约四分之一人口的流动,危及意大利的经济。
        But unlike China, where the outbreak began, this is a democracy, and debate erupted immediately over how well the government will be able to enforce the new rules — and whether Italians will actually obey them.        但与疫情最初暴发的国家中国不同,意大利是一个民主国家,政府将在多大程度上执行新规,以及意大利人是否真的会遵守新规,立即引发了争论。
        “We are the new Wuhan,” said Elena Lofino, 39, who works in a shopping center in the closed-off northern region of Lombardy, referring to the locked-down Chinese city of 11 million people where the virus is believed to have originated.        “我们就是新的武汉,”39岁的埃琳娜·洛菲诺(Elena Lofino)说。她在被封锁的北部伦巴第地区的一家购物中心工作。武汉是中国一座有1100万人口的被封锁城市,被认为是病毒的起源地。
        As she hung out with her friends, Ms. Lofino said she thought the measures made sense. “It’s going to be a huge sacrifice,” she said, “but we’ll accept it.”        在和朋友聚会的洛菲诺认为这些措施是有意义的。“这是个巨大的牺牲,”她说,“但我们会接受。”
        Hours after the prime minister announced the new restrictions, Italy’s death toll from the virus jumped by more than 50 percent in a single day to 366 from 233 on Saturday — the most deaths officially reported for any country outside China. Italy has the worst outbreak in Europe, with more than 7,300 known to be infected.        就在总理宣布新限制措施几小时后,意大利死于冠状病毒的人数一天内就上升了50%以上,从上周六的233人上升到366人,这是中国以外官方报告死亡人数最多的国家。意大利是欧洲疫情最严重的国家,已知有超过7300人感染。
        Many, including Mr. Conte, have appealed to Italians to reject their tendency toward “furbizia,” the Italian word for the sort of cunning or cleverness typically channeled into getting around bureaucracy and inconvenient laws.        包括孔特在内的许多人都呼吁意大利人摒弃他们的“furbizia”倾向,这个意大利语词的意思是狡猾或聪明,通常用来规避官僚主义和麻烦的法律。
        Furbizia, to be sure, is a broad-brush character trait ascribed to Italians, often by other Italians.        “Furbizia”当然是专用于意大利人的一种宽泛的性格特征,使用者也往往是意大利人。
        But on Sunday, it seemed to be front of mind as officials rebuked travelers for rushing onto trains out of Lombardy before the decree went into effect in the afternoon and as health experts implored the public to abide by the law and act responsibly.        但在周日,官员们指责旅客在该法令于下午生效前赶乘火车离开伦巴第,卫生专家也呼吁公众遵守法律、采取负责任的行动时,这个词似乎马上就浮现在人们脑海里。
        Italy’s social media feeds on Sunday were filled with famous singers and media personalities engaging in a mingle-shaming campaign.        周日,意大利的社交媒体上有许多交际羞辱活动,著名歌手和媒体人士都参与进来。
        “You need to stay home!” Barbara Balanzoni, a doctor, said in a video that went viral in Italy. She said there were not enough respirators to help people sick from the virus.        “你得待在家里!”医生芭芭拉·巴兰佐尼(Barbara Balanzoni)在一段走红意大利的视频中说。她说医院没有足够的呼吸机来帮助感染病毒的人。
        “There are too many people walking around,” Dr. Balanzoni protested.        “在外面闲逛的人太多了,”巴兰佐尼抗议道。
        As museums closed across the country, Italy’s culture minister, Dario Franceschini, thanked “the many protagonists of music, cinema, and show business” who promoted on social media the “I’m Staying Home” hashtag.        意大利各地的博物馆纷纷关闭,文化部长达里奥·弗兰切斯基尼(Dario Franceschini)感谢“音乐、电影和娱乐业的许多领军人物”,他们在社交媒体上打出了“我待在家里”的标签。
        “It’s a very important message for our youth,” he wrote on Twitter.        “这对我们的年轻人来说是一个非常重要的信息,”他在Twitter上写道。
        In Rome, outside the locked-down “red zones” farther north, the authorities recommended that people limit their movements to only what is “strictly necessary.” Valeria Graziussi, a Neapolitan living in Rome, said she and her friends had decided to “do an experiment.”        在被封锁的“红区”以南的罗马,当局建议人们只在“绝对必要”的范围内活动。住在罗马的那不勒斯人瓦莱里娅·格拉齐乌西(Valeria Graziussi)说,她和朋友们决定“做一个实验”。
        On Sunday, she went for an afternoon coffee at the Café Sant’Eustachio, one of the city’s best-known cafes, which is usually packed. “You rarely get to stand at the counter for more than 30 seconds,” she said.        周日下午,她去了圣尤斯塔奇奥咖啡馆喝了杯咖啡,这里是罗马最著名的咖啡馆之一,通常人很多。“你很少能在柜台前站30秒以上,”她说。
        Ms. Graziussi still found lines to get served at the counter, and so considered the experiment a success.        格拉齐乌西看到柜台前还有排队的顾客,因此她认为这个实验是成功的。
        “We haven’t been terrorized enough,” her friend Davide d’Andrea said with a shrug.        “我们受的恐吓还不够多,”她的朋友达维德·德安德里亚(Davide d’Andrea)耸耸肩说。
        The strict new decree went into effect on Sunday afternoon, and it includes three months of potential jail time for people who fail to observe some its provisions, including those restricting the movement of people who test positive for the virus, and bans on gatherings.        这项严格的新法令于周日下午生效,不遵守该法令中某些条款的人会被处以三个月的监禁,这其中包括限制病毒检测呈阳性者的行动,以及禁止人群聚集。
        The Italian authorities have consistently taken some of the most aggressive steps to stop the virus’s spread. They have canceled flights from China in January, quarantining entire towns in February and now severely limiting movement in all of Lombardy — home to the economic powerhouse Milan — as well as in swaths of other nearby regions and iconic cities like Venice.        意大利当局一直采取一些最激烈的措施来阻止病毒的传播。今年1月,他们取消了来自中国的航班,2月彻底隔离了一些城镇,现在又严格限制整个伦巴第地区(经济中心米兰的所在地)以及附近大片地区和威尼斯等标志性城市的活动。
        Critics said the calls for civic duty were undercut by confusion.        批评人士说,民众的困惑影响了公民义务呼吁的效果。
        They said that contradictory messages from the government and from officials of the northern regions about what people could do and where they could go were not helping. They also criticized the national government in Rome for a schizophrenia that vacillates between drop-everything alerts and just-wash-your-hands reassurances.        他们说,关于人们能做什么和能去哪里,政府和北部地区官员给出的信息是相互矛盾的,导致情况愈发糟糕。他们还批评罗马的国民政府像得了精神分裂一样,一会发出警报,要求放下一切以应对疫情,一会说多洗手就可以。
        While Prime Minister Conte said Italians were “obligated” to stay put in the demarcated northern areas unless they had been granted permission to pass through police checkpoints, the Lombardy official running the region’s response to the crisis said it was not so strict.        总理孔特说,除非得到了通过警察检查站的许可,意大利人“有义务”留在划定的北部区域,伦巴第负责该区危机应对的官员则说,并没那么严格。
        Giulio Gallera, the Lombardy region’s top health care official, said in a Facebook live post that the decree signed overnight by Mr. Conte had fostered “doubts” among citizens. Mr. Gallera suggested that citizens, to preserve the country’s economy, should be able to move around for work. And he said the national government should clear up any confusion on the matter.        伦巴第大区高级卫生官员朱利奥·加莱拉(Giulio Gallera)在一次Facebook直播中表示,孔特一夜之间签署的法令加深了国民的“怀疑”。加莱拉建议,为了维护国家的经济,应使公民能够为了工作而自由出行。他还说,中央政府应该厘清对于此事的任何疑惑。
        Matteo Salvini, the leader of Italy’s opposition league party, echoed the sentiment.        意大利反对党联盟领导人马泰奥·萨尔维尼(Matteo Salvini)对此表示赞同。
        “Clarity, clarity, clarity!” he said in a statement. “Who can do what? Where can you go? What can you bring?”        “明确,明确,明确!”他在一份声明中说。“谁能做什么事?你能去哪儿?你能携带什么?”
        In the days before the decree, old men outside the quarantined town Zorlesco joked that their friends often sidestepped the rules and eluded the police checkpoints by taking old country roads to the bar for a drink outside the locked-down area.        在该法令颁布之前的几天里,被隔离城镇佐尔勒斯科外的老人开玩笑说,他们的朋友经常规避管制,走旧的乡村道路绕过警察的检查站,到封锁区外的酒吧喝酒。
        But Italians officials clearly do not think any of this was funny, and they have lost patience with any invocations of furbizia.        但是意大利官员显然不认为这有什么好笑的,他们对一切“furbizia”都失去了耐心。
        In the country’s southern regions, the governors say that anyone arriving from locked- down northern areas should go into quarantine.        南部地区的地方长官说,任何来自北部封锁地区的人都应进行隔离。
        Giuseppe Ippolito, the director of the Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome, declared on Italian television that “the people who fled last night are a potential risk for the country.” He urged them to contact the health services, report their situation and “be ready for eventual isolation.”        罗马的拉扎罗·斯帕兰札尼国家传染病研究所(Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases)所长朱塞佩·伊波利托(Giuseppe Ippolito)在意大利电视台上宣布,“昨晚逃离的人对这个国家属于潜在危险。”他敦促他们与卫生服务机构联系,报告他们的状况,并“为最终的隔离做好准备”。
        Some people thought they were doing the right thing by leaving Milan for the south.        有些人认为自己离开米兰去往南部是个正确的决定。
        At Milan’s Central train station early Sunday morning, Giorgia Caredda, a 30-year-old social media manager, waited for a train to Rome so that she could help take care of her father, who has heart problems, “in case something bad happens.”        周日清晨,在米兰中央火车站,现年30岁的社交媒体经理乔治亚·卡雷达(Giorgia Caredda)在等候去往罗马的火车,以便可以帮助照顾有心脏病的父亲,“以防糟糕的事情发生。”
        “One side of me feels really silly” she said about being prompted to leave by a sense of impending doom. “I got this sensation of being chained and needed to get out.”        “我一方面感觉自己很傻,”她谈到被厄运即将来临的直觉驱使。“我感觉好像被拴住,需要离开。”
        The authorities in the Lazio region, where the regional president on Saturday said he had contracted the virus, posted on Facebook pictures of busy squares and streets in Rome with a #wecantdothis caption.        拉齐奥大区区长周六表示,他已感染该病毒,区政府在Facebook上发了罗马繁忙的广场和街道的照片,加了标签“#wecantdothis”(#我们不能这样做)。
        In Luigi Barzini’s 1964 classic study of his countrymen, “The Italians,” he attributed the value put on furbizia to Italy’s habit of being conquered and governed by a long line of hated foreigners or quislings, from Napoleon to the Hapsburgs.        在路易吉·巴齐尼(Luigi Barzini)于1964年对同胞的经典研究《意大利人》(The Italians)中,他认为“furbizia”的意义源于意大利常常被外国人或卖国贼——从拿破仑到哈布斯堡家族——征服和统治的历史。
        “Under the surface the Italians invented ways to defeat oppressive regimentation,” Mr. Barzini wrote. “As they could not protect their national liberty in the field of battle, they fought strenuously to defend the liberty of the individual and his family, the only liberty they understood anyway.”        “透过表象去看,意大利人是在想方设法击败高压统治,”巴齐尼写道。“由于他们无法在战场上保护自己的民族自由,他们为捍卫个人及其家人的自由而进行了艰苦的斗争,反正那是他们唯一理解的自由。”
        The writer compared the rules those leaders imposed to “the hedges in a steeplechase course” that Italians used to show off their speed. Laws, he said, became a necessary evil if only because they provided the delight of evading them.        作者将这些领导人施加的规则比做“障碍跑马赛的树篱”——意大利人以此炫耀自己的行动速度。他说,法律成为一种必要之恶——哪怕只是因为,法律带来了逃避法律的愉悦。
        “How could one circumvent laws if there were none?” he wrote.        他写道:“没有法律何来绕开法律?”
        This is precisely the kind of thinking that Mr. Conte urged Italians to avoid.        这正是孔特敦促意大利人不要有的想法。
        “We must safeguard our health,” he said early Sunday, “and that of those we love.”        他周日早些时候说:“我们必须维护我们的健康,以及我们所爱的人的健康。”
        In some unlikely quarters, that message seemed to be breaking through.        这个讯息似乎传递到了一些原本机会不大的角落。
        Antonio Ponti, 47, a D.J. in Milan’s club scene, had planned a party in defiance of the crackdown on the city’s night life. To skirt an ordinance against events in venues that don’t allow people to keep a meter’s distance from one another, he cleverly planned the party outdoors.        47岁的米兰夜店DJ安东尼奥·蓬蒂(Antonio Ponti)原本计划举行一场派对,以反抗对这座城市夜生活的镇压。为了规避禁止人们在无法相互保持一米距离的场所举办活动的禁令,他机智地将派对安排在户外。
        But as the toll of virus grew, and talk of tough restrictions resonated in Milan, he said he did not want to be seen as a “plague spreader.” He followed the lead of other promoters and pulled the plug.        但是,随着病毒相关数字的增长,以及关于严格限制的探讨在米兰引起了共鸣,他说他不想被视为“瘟疫传播者”。他效仿其他发起人,取消了活动。
        “It is wiser,” he said, “if we help things get better.”        他说:“如果我们能让事情有些改善,那就是明智的。”

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