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Need a Coronavirus Test? Being Rich and Famous May Help

来源:纽约时报    2020-03-20 05:32

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        Politicians, celebrities, social media influencers and even N.B.A. teams have been tested for the new coronavirus. But as that list of rich, famous and powerful people grows by the day, so do questions about whether they are getting access to testing that is denied to other Americans.        政客、名人、网红、甚至NBA球队都已经进行了新型冠状病毒的测试。但是,随着这一串拥有金钱、名声和权力的名字越来越长,人们越发质疑,其他美国人是否被剥夺了获取这种检测的机会。
        Some of these high-profile people say they are feeling ill and had good reason to be tested. Others argue that those who were found to be infected and then isolated themselves provided a good example to the public.        这些知名人士中的一些人说,他们感到不适,并且有充分的理由接受测试。还有一些人则认为,那些发现感染后进行自我隔离的人为公众做了一个很好的榜样。
        But with testing still in short supply in areas of the country, leaving health care workers and many sick people unable to get diagnoses, some prominent personalities have obtained tests without exhibiting symptoms or having known contact with someone who has the virus, as required by some testing guidelines. Others have refused to specify how they were tested.        但是,由于美国某些地区的测试仍然短缺,使得医护人员和许多病人无法得到诊断,而一些名人在还未出现症状时,或在某些指南的要求下,在得知与病毒携带者有接触后就已获得了测试。还有一些人则拒绝说明他们的测试是如何进行的。
        Such cases have provoked accusations of elitism and preferential treatment about a testing system that has already been plagued with delays and confusion, and now stirred a new national debate that has reached the White House — with President Trump being asked at a Wednesday news conference whether “the well-connected go to the front of the line.”        这个测试系统本已经饱受延误和混乱的困扰,如今又激起了人们对精英主义和特殊待遇的指责,并又引发一场直抵白宫的全国大讨论——特朗普总统在周三的新闻发布会上被问及“是否存在有势力的人插队的情况”。
        “You’d have to ask them that question,” he replied, suggesting that should not be the case. “Perhaps that’s been the story of life. That does happen on occasion, and I’ve noticed where some people have been tested fairly quickly.”        “这个问题你得去问他们,”他回答说,并且暗示并不是这样。“也许这就是生活。有时候确实会发生这种情况,而且我注意到有些人的测试做得相当迅速。”
        Inside the N.B.A., where eight entire teams have been tested, there are differing views. Bob Myers, the president of basketball operations for the Golden State Warriors, said his team thought it would be unfair for its players to seek special access.        在已有8支球队做了测试的NBA内部,存在着不同的看法。金州勇士队总经理鲍勃·迈尔斯(Bob Myers)表示,他的团队认为,为队员寻求特殊待遇是不公平的。
        “We’ve been told that the testing is in short supply,” Mr. Myers said in a conference call on Tuesday, explaining that no Warriors coach, player or staff member would test until symptomatic — and only then in accord with government guidelines. “We’re not better than anybody, not worse. Just a basketball team.”        迈尔斯在周二的电话会议上说:“有人告诉我们测试存在短缺。”他解释说,勇士队的教练、球员或职员只有在有症状的情况下才会测试——只有这种情况才符合政府的指南。“我们并不比任何人高,也不比谁低。我们只是一支篮球队。”
        The same day, Mayor Bill de Blasio of New York, in a post on Twitter, chided the Brooklyn Nets, which managed to arrange tests for its entire roster. Four were positive, with one exhibiting symptoms.        当天,纽约市市长白思豪(Bill de Blasio)在Twitter上发帖斥责了设法为整个球队安排测试的布鲁克林篮网队。有4人为阳性,其中1人有症状。
        “We wish them a speedy recovery,” Mr. de Blasio wrote. “But, with all due respect, an entire NBA team should NOT get tested for COVID-19 while there are critically ill patients waiting to be tested. Tests should not be for the wealthy, but for the sick.”        “我们希望他们尽早康复,”白思豪写道。“但是,恕我直言,当有重症患者还在等待接受测试时,NBA一整支球队不应接受COVID-19的测试。测试不应该针对富人,而是针对病患。”
        Access has proved uneven across the country, even as guidelines for who qualifies have broadened and the laboratories conducting tests have expanded, from the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to state health departments and then to hospitals and private labs.        事实证明,全国各地获取测试的机会不平衡,即使指南中适用于测试的人群范围扩大,并且可进行测试的实验室也有所增加——从联邦疾病控制和预防中心到州卫生部门,再到医院和私人实验室。
        In areas of the country where the virus has been slow to appear, people have been able to obtain tests easily. But in New York, California, Washington State and Massachusetts, where the virus has spread rapidly and demand for tests is most high, it is very difficult.        国内病例出现尚不多的地区已经能够轻松获得测试。但是在纽约州、加州、华盛顿州和马萨诸塞州,这些病毒传播迅速,测试需求最大,获得测试非常困难。
        The New York City Health Department has directed doctors only to order tests for patients in need of hospitalization. People with mild symptoms are being told to quarantine themselves at home. Even health care workers, at high risk of contracting the virus and transmitting it, have struggled to get tested.        纽约市卫生局要求医生只为需要住院治疗的病人安排检测。轻症患者被告知要在家中隔离。即使是作为感染和传播高风险人群的医护人员也很难进行检测。
        In New Rochelle, a community north of Manhattan where the virus has spread, a sick mother was told she could not get tested because she hadn’t been to a global “hot spot.” In Boston, an employee at Biogen, a tech company where many dozens tested positive after a conference, was turned away because he didn’t have symptoms. On Twitter, the hashtag #CDCWontTestMe has been circulating for weeks.        在病毒已扩散的曼哈顿北部新罗谢尔社区,一位生病的母亲被告知无法接受检测,因为她没有去过全球“热点”地区。波士顿科技公司渤健(Biogen)有几十名员工在一次大会后检测呈阳性,然而一名员工却因没有症状而被拒绝检测。在Twitter上,#CDCWontTestMe(“CDC不给我做测试”)这个标签已经流传了几周。
        In the eyes of some doctors, prominent figures appeared to be moving to the front of the line.        在一些医生看来,似乎存在要人插队的情况。
        “As predicted, #COVID19 is exposing all of the societal inequities,” Dr. Uché Blackstock, an urgent care doctor in Brooklyn, wrote on Twitter. “It’s upsetting for me to 1) have to ration out #COVID19 testing to my patients, then 2) have to wait 5-7 days for the results, when celebrities are getting tested with ease and quick turnaround times.”        “不出所料,#COVID19暴露了所有社会不公,”布鲁克林的急救医生乌切·布莱克斯托克(Uche Blackstock)在Twitter上写道:“这让我很苦恼:1)不得不给病人的#COVID19测试定额,2)必须等5-7天才能得到结果,而名人却可以轻松测试,迅速拿到结果。”
        The Hollywood elite — stars, agents, studio and network executives — have concierge doctors on speed dial during the best of times and are used to receiving preferential treatment at Los Angeles medical centers like Cedars-Sinai and Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center. Many A-listers use LifeSpan, a private practice.        好莱坞精英——明星、经纪人、制片公司和电视网高管——在情况最好时都可以快速电话预约门诊医生,他们习惯于在西达斯西奈(Cedars-Sinai)和加州大学洛杉矶分校罗纳德·里根医疗中心(Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center)这样的洛杉矶医疗中心接受优待诊疗。许多一线明星在私人诊所LifeSpan就诊。
        Over the past few days, however, some celebrities — even ones with symptoms — have expressed frustration about an inability to get tested because of a shortage of kits. Heidi Klum, the TV personality and model, posted a video on Instagram on Friday from Los Angeles in which she claimed to have tried two doctors without luck. “I just can’t get one,” she said.        然而,过去几天里,一些名人——甚至是有症状的名人——都因为缺少检测工具而无法进行检测,他们对此表示失望。电视名人兼模特海蒂·克拉姆(Heidi Klum)上周五在洛杉矶发布了一段Instagram视频,说自己看了两个医生,运气都不好。“我就是得不到测试,”她说。
        The video may have helped her gain access. A day later, she returned to Instagram to say she was “finally” able to get tested. The result was negative. Representatives for Ms. Klum did not respond to queries.        这段视频可能帮助她获得了机会。一天后,她回到Instagram上说,她“终于”可以接受检测了。结果是阴性的。克拉姆的代理人没有回答记者的提问。
        But generally, celebrities of all kinds appear to have had a far easier time getting diagnoses. On Monday, Arielle Charnas, a social media influencer in Manhattan with more than 1.3 million Instagram followers, posted that she’d had a sore throat and a fever for the “past two days.” She was told that she did not meet the criteria for testing and that she should treat her symptoms at home.        但总的来说,各类名人似乎都更容易得到诊断机会。周一,在Instagram上拥有130多万粉丝的曼哈顿社交媒体名人阿里尔·查纳斯(Arielle Charnas)发帖称,“过去两天”她一直嗓子疼,还发烧。她被告知没有达到检测的标准,应该在家里自行治疗。
        But after posting to Instagram, she said she was flooded with fan messages asking her to get screened for Covid-19. She tagged a friend, Dr. Jake Deutsch, founder of Cure Urgent Care, who agreed to test her.        但在Instagram上发帖后,她说她收到大量粉丝的信息,要求她去筛查Covid-19。她在发帖时标上了一位朋友,“治愈紧急护理”(Cure Urgent Care)的创始人杰克·多伊奇(Jake Deutsch)博士,后者同意为她测试。
        She was swabbed from her car, documenting the procedure online. She tagged both Dr. Deutsch’s Instagram account and that of his practice, thanking them. On Wednesday morning, she posted a statement letting her followers know the results were positive. “I realize that there are many individuals, both in New York City, and nationwide, who do not have the ability to receive immediate medical care at the first sign of sickness, and access to care is #1 priority in a time like this,” she wrote.        她在车内取了拭子,在网上记录了整个过程。她在帖子里加上了多伊奇的Instagram账号和他诊所账号的标签,对他们表示感谢。周三上午,她发表了一份声明,让粉丝知道结果是阳性的。“我意识到,无论是在纽约市还是在全国范围内,有许多人在出现疾病迹象时,都无法立即得到医疗照护,而在这样的时期,这应该是头等大事,”她写道。
        Dr. Deutsch said he was partnering with two private labs, BioReference and Lenco, to offer testing. In the past three days, he said, his clinic screened nearly 100 patients, half of whom came back positive.        多伊奇说,他正在与BioReference和Lenco两家私人实验室合作,提供检测服务。他说,过去三天里,他的诊所筛查了近100名患者,其中一半人的检测结果呈阳性。
        On Capitol Hill, where four senators and nearly a dozen House members have chosen to self-quarantine after possible exposure to the virus, patterns seemed to emerge.        在国会山,4名参议员和近12名众议员在可能接触到病毒后选择了自我隔离,某种模式似乎正在显现。
        Those who consulted their own doctors or the attending physician of Congress were by and large advised against testing if they were asymptomatic.        如果他们向自己的医生或国会的主治医生咨询,大体上会得到建议,如果没有症状就不要进行检测。
        “Each of the physicians that I consulted with advised me that since I have no symptoms, since I’m not sick, they said testing was medically ineffective,” Senator Ted Cruz, Republican of Texas, said on Saturday in an interview with ABC News.        “我咨询过的所有医生都告诉我,既然我没有症状,既然我没有生病,检测在医学上就是无效的,”得克萨斯州共和党参议员特德·克鲁兹(Ted Cruz)上周六接受ABC新闻频道采访时表示。
        Some who obtained tests were close allies of the president — Senator Lindsey Graham, Republican of South Carolina and a frequent golfing partner of Mr. Trump; Representative Mark Meadows, Republican of North Carolina and the incoming White House chief of staff; and Representative Matt Gaetz, Republican of Florida, who learned he had been exposed to the virus as he boarded Air Force One last week to fly back to Washington with Mr. Trump. Their tests came back negative.        一些获得测试的人是总统的亲密盟友——南卡罗来纳州共和党参议员、特朗普的长期高尔夫球友林赛·格雷厄姆(Lindsey Graham);北卡罗来纳州共和党众议员、即将上任的白宫幕僚长马克·梅多斯(Mark Meadows);还有佛罗里达州共和党众议员马特·盖茨(Matt Gaetz),他得知自己上周与特朗普一起登上空军一号返回华盛顿时接触了感染者。他们的测试结果均为阴性。
        Spokesmen for both Mr. Meadows and Mr. Graham declined to answer emailed questions about the circumstances of their testing, including who ordered it and where it was done.        梅多斯和格雷厄姆的发言人都拒绝回答通过电子邮件发送的有关他们测试情况的问题,包括是谁下令进行,在哪里进行。
        Mr. Gaetz said on Twitter that White House medical officials had told him he was being tested not “because I am in Congress — but because I had been in close contact with President Trump over several days.”        盖茨在Twitter上说,白宫医疗官员告诉他,他接受检测不是“因为我在国会——而是因为我与特朗普总统保持了几天的密切联系”。
        On Wednesday, it was announced that two congressman had tested positive: Representatives Ben McAdams, Democrat of Utah, and Mario Diaz-Balart, Republican of Florida. (Another Florida politician, Mayor Francis Suarez of Miami, has also tested positive.)        周三,有消息宣布,两名国会议员的检测结果呈阳性:犹他州民主党众议员本·麦克亚当斯(Ben McAdams)和佛罗里达州共和党众议员马里奥·迪亚斯-巴拉特(Mario Diaz-Balart)。(另一位佛罗里达州政治人物、迈阿密市长弗朗西斯·苏亚雷斯[Francis Suarez]的检测结果也呈阳性。)
        Wendy Bost, a spokeswoman for Quest Diagnostics, one of the country’s largest commercial laboratories, said a variety of organizations had asked for help testing their employees, noting that Quest provided “an exceedingly small percentage of our overall collection kits to a small number of sports teams.” She said the company agreed to do so only for teams with at least one diagnosed case.
        美国最大的商业实验室之一奎斯特诊断公司(Quest Diagnostics)的发言人温迪·博斯特(Wendy Bost)说,许多组织已经请求帮助对他们的员工进行检测,她指出,奎斯特“向少数运动团队提供了我们全部检测工具中极小的一部分。”她说,公司只同意对至少有一例确诊病例的球队进行检测。
        Quest, as well as LabCorp, another major diagnostic company, said tests were processed in the order they were received.        奎斯特和另一家主要诊断公司LabCorp表示,检测是按照收到申请的顺序进行的。
        The N.B.A. on March 7 instructed all teams to identify a nearby facility they could enlist to conduct testing, according to a private memorandum obtained by The New York Times. But approaches by teams have varied, and some say they have not screened their players.        《纽约时报》获得的一份不公开备忘录显示,3月7日,NBA要求所有球队在当地找到一个可以报名进行测试的机构。但球队的做法各不相同,有些球队说他们没有对球员进行筛查。
        A spokeswoman for the Nets said the tests were obtained through a private company, to avoid using public resources. The testing took place after the team “noticed that several of our players and staff had symptoms,” she said.        篮网队发言人说,为避免使用公共资源,他们的测试是通过一家私人公司获得的。她说,测试是在团队“注意到我们的几名球员和工作人员出现症状”之后进行的。
        The team pushed back on criticism that it had received unfair access, saying, “If we had waited for players to exhibit symptoms, they might have continued to pose a risk to their family, friends and the public.”        该团队反驳了外界对其受到特殊待遇的批评,并表示“如果我们等到球员表现出症状,他们可能会持续对家人、朋友和公众构成风险”。

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