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WHO宣布新冠疫情构成全球大流行
Coronavirus Has Become a Pandemic, W.H.O. Says

来源:纽约时报    2020-03-12 11:34



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        The spread of the coronavirus is now a pandemic, officials at the World Health Organization said on Wednesday.        世界卫生组织周三宣布,新型冠状病毒疫情现在是一场全球大流行。
        “We have rung the alarm bell loud and clear,” said Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the W.H.O.’s director-general.        世卫组织总干事谭德塞(Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus)说:“我们响亮而清晰地敲响了警钟。”
        Dr. Tedros called for countries to learn from one another’s successes, act in unison and help protect one another against a common threat.        谭德塞呼吁各国从彼此成功的经验中学习,齐心协力采取行动,保护彼此免受共同威胁。
        “Find, isolate, test and treat every case, and trace every contact,” Dr. Tedros said. “Ready your hospitals. Protect and train your health care workers.”        “发现、隔离、检测和治疗每个病例,并追踪每个接触者,”谭德塞说。“让你们的医院准备好。 保护和培训本国医务人员。 ”
        “Let’s all look out for each other, because we’re in this together to do the right things with calm and to protect the citizens of the world.”        “让我们同舟共济,从容面对,正确行事,保护全世界人民。”
        Although this is the first pandemic caused by a coronavirus, “we also believe that this is the first pandemic that is able to be controlled,” Dr. Tedros added.        谭德塞还说,虽然这是首次由冠状病毒引发的大流行,“我们也相信这是首次能够被控制的大流行。”
        He pointed several times to the success of China, which has cut new infections from over 3,500 a day in late January to a mere 24 in the most recent daily count. The world is watching to see whether China can keep its numbers down as it gradually releases millions of city dwellers from quarantine and lets them go back to work.        他多次指出中国的成功,该国新增感染人数已经从1月底的每天3500多人减少到24人。全世界都在注视着中国,看看它是否能在逐渐解除数百万城市居民的隔离、让他们重返工作岗位的同时,控制住数字。
        South Korea and Singapore have also begun to see cases drop. But the rest of the world is seeing alarmingly rapid rises.        韩国和新加坡也的病例数字也在下降。但是世界其他地区的增长速度惊人。
        The W.H.O. is emphatically not suggesting that the world should give up on containment, Dr. Tedros said.        谭德塞说,世卫组织强烈建议全世界不要放弃遏制病毒。
        “We are suggesting a blended strategy,” he said, referring to a blend of containment and mitigation. “We should double down. We should be more aggressive.”        “我们建议采取混合战略,”他指的是将遏制与缓解相结合。“我们应该加倍努力。我们应该更加积极主动。”
        China, South Korea and Singapore have shown that aggressive contact tracing and rapid isolation of the sick can work. Unlike Western nations, all three rejected the idea of home quarantine, because cases rapidly spread in families.        中国、韩国和新加坡已经证明,积极主动地追踪接触者并快速隔离病患是可行的。与西方国家不同,这三个国家都不认同居家隔离的做法,因为疾病会快速在家庭中传播。
        Some alarmed public health experts have described Beijing’s approach as draconian or brutal, but the W.H.O. has referred to it simply as aggressive.        一些不无担心的公共卫生专家称中国的做法严苛或残酷,但世卫组织仅称其为积极主动。
        Wuhan and surrounding cities, the outbreak’s epicenter, have been shut down since late January, and travel elsewhere is strictly limited.        疫情中心武汉及其周边城市自1月下旬以来一直处于封锁状态,其他地方的旅行也受到了严格的限制。
        Everyone must wear a mask outdoors and submit to constant temperature checks, which are administered at the doors to every office building, store and restaurant, as well as bus, train and subway stations — even at the entries to apartment houses and residential neighborhoods.        每个人外出必须戴口罩,并反复接受体温检查——在每个办公楼、商店和餐厅的门口,在长途汽车站、火车站和地铁站,甚至是公寓楼和居民小区的入口。
        The use of sanitizer or hand-washing on entry is mandatory.        在进门前必须进行消毒或洗手。
        People who think they are infected are screened at special “fever clinics,” not at doctors’ offices. They get temperature checks, flu tests, white blood cell counts, CT lung scans and laboratory tests for the virus, according to Dr. Bruce Aylward, leader of the W.H.O. observer mission that visited China in February.        据2月率领世卫组织观察团访问中国的布鲁斯·艾尔沃德(Bruce Aylward)博士说,认为自己受到感染的人在特别的“发热门诊”接受排查,而不是在医生的诊室。他们接受体温检查、流感检测、白细胞计数、肺部CT扫描和冠状病毒检测。
        Anyone who appears to have the new virus, instead of flu or bacterial pneumonia, is held until the lab results are in or while testing is repeated. Some are held at repurposed hotels.        任何看似感染新型病毒而不是流感或细菌性肺炎的人,都将被隔离,等待实验室结果或者再次进行检测。有些人隔离在被临时征用的酒店里。
        If they are found to be infected, they may not return home — almost 80 percent of infections were within families, studies in China found.        如果结果显示感染了病毒,他们不可以回家——中国的研究发现,80%的感染发生在家庭内部。
        If infected persons are seriously ill or elderly, they are hospitalized. Those with milder cases recuperate in isolation centers with hundreds of beds and nursing care. The centers are segregated by sex and age; even children who are infected must go.        如果感染者有重病或者是老年人,他们会住院治疗。轻症患者则去拥有上百张病床的隔离中心,接受护理,等待康复。这些中心按性别和年龄分类:甚至被感染的儿童也必须去。
        No visitors are allowed, but there activities like dance classes to fight the boredom and keep people active.        虽然不允许探视,但像舞蹈课这样的活动可以使人不那么无聊并且保持活力。
        As difficult and aggressive as they are, such measures “reduce the number of cases that are wheeled through the doors of hospitals,” said Dr. Michael Ryan, head of the agency’s emergencies program.        世界卫生组织应急响应负责人迈克尔·瑞安(Michael Ryan)博士说,这些措施既费劲又强硬,但它们“减少了进入医院的病例数”。
        The largest number of deaths in China occurred in Wuhan, because its hospitals were overwhelmed in early January, when the authorities were suppressing news of the danger.        在中国,死亡人数最多的地方是武汉,因为那里的医院在1月初不堪重负,当时当局正在封锁关于病毒危险的消息。
        The fact that 90 percent of the world’s cases are in four countries — China, Italy, Iran and South Korea — indicates that the pandemic can still be contained if countries act fast, Dr. Tedros said.        谭德塞说,世界上90%的病例分布在四个国家——中国、意大利、伊朗和韩国——这意味着如果各国迅速采取行动,大流行仍然可以遏制。
        There are only about 1,100 confirmed cases in the United States, but experts fear that is only a fraction of the real prevalence, because testing for the coronavirus has been unavailable or haphazard in the United States.        在美国仅有1100例确诊病例,但专家担心那只是实际病患的一小部分,因为美国缺乏冠状病毒检测或检测混乱。
        The number of cases in the world doubles every six days, epidemiologists have estimated.        流行病学家估计,全世界病例数每6天增加一倍。
        The epidemic is thought to have begun with a single infection of a person in Wuhan, presumably by a butchered animal, in mid-November last year. Without any containment measures, it would now be at about one million cases; by the end of April, there would have been over 250 million.        疫情的起点据信是去年11月中旬武汉的一起病例,可能由被宰杀的动物引起。如果不采取任何遏制措施,现在的病例将达到100万例左右;到4月底,这个数字将超过2.5亿。
        Exactly how many cases were prevented by China’s crackdown is unknown, said Dr. Aylward, “but it’s in the hundreds of thousands.”        艾尔沃德说,中国的遏制行动究竟阻止了多少病例,目前尚不清楚,“但应以十万为单位计算。”
        The goal of an aggressive containment response, W.H.O. officials explained, is to hold down the number of deaths and critical illnesses until a vaccine can be rolled out, possibly by early next year.        世卫组织官员解释说,采取积极遏制措施的目标是,在疫苗可能于明年初推出之前,将死亡人数和危重病例控制在一定范围内。
        Although declaring a pandemic is largely symbolic, given that the virus has been spreading around the world for weeks, health officials hope the action will raise public awareness of the approaching danger.        尽管宣布大流行在很大程度上是象征性的,鉴于该病毒已经在世界各地传播了数周,卫生官员希望此举能提高公众对即将到来的危险的认识。
        Many countries have been slow to prepare, and the W.H.O.’s appeals for funds to help the poorest countries get ready have largely gone unanswered as the world’s wealthiest countries struggle to protect themselves.        许多国家的准备工作进展缓慢,世卫组织呼吁为帮助最贫穷国家提供资金,在世界上最富裕的国家努力自保之际,这一呼吁基本未得到响应。
        Declaring a pandemic does not change what the W.H.O. will do, Dr. Ryan said. It is an effort “to galvanize the world to fight.”        瑞安说,宣布大流行并不会改变世卫组织的行动。这是为了“激励世界去战斗”。
        A lot of thought was given to finally using the word, he said, because of the fear that it would cause countries to give up the fight as hopeless.        他说,世卫组织思考了很久,最终使用这个词,因为担心它会导致一些国家因为绝望而放弃抗击疫情。
        As of Wednesday, the virus had infected more than 120,000 people in 114 countries, killing about 4,300 of them.        截至周三,该病毒已经感染了114个国家的12万多人,其中约4300人死亡。
        For many days, when pressed on whether the disease is a pandemic, W.H.O. officials have drawn a distinction between “uncontrolled spread” and “uncontrollable spread.” They argued that China’s thus far successful effort to drive new cases down proved that the global outbreak could be controlled in places even without a vaccine.        许多天来,当被追问该疾病是否为大流行时,世卫组织官员强调“未控制的传播”和“无法控制的传播”之间的区别。他们认为,中国迄今为止成功降低了新增病例,证明即使在没有疫苗的情况下,全球疫情也可以在某些地方得到控制。
        Although Dr. Tedros said some countries were not moving fast enough or taking the threat seriously enough, Dr. Ryan declined to name them.        尽管谭德塞表示,有些国家的行动速度不够快,或者对这种威胁的重视程度不够,但瑞安拒绝说出这些国家的名字。
        “The W.H.O. does not criticize its member states in public,” he said. “You know who you are.”        “世卫组织不会公开批评其成员国,”他说。“你自己清楚。”
        Declaring a pandemic has no legal meaning and does not impose any new measures.        宣布大流行没有任何法律意义,也不会带来任何新措施。
        On Jan. 30, the W.H.O. declared the virus a public health emergency and said that distinction was more important than whether to call it a pandemic.        1月30日,世卫组织宣布该病毒是国际关注的突发公共卫生事件,并表示,这个差别比是否将其称为大流行更重要。
        Agency officials have often declared themselves frustrated by pressure — which often comes from journalists — to say exactly when a pandemic is officially underway.        世卫组织的官员经常表示,他们受到通常来自记者的压力,要求他们准确地说出大流行何时正式开始。
        After the 2009 pandemic of H1N1 swine flu from Mexico to the Americas to Europe and beyond, the W.H.O. gave up its old definition of a pandemic: “sustained human-to-human transmission of a novel pathogen in two or more W.H.O. regions.”        在2009年H1N1猪流感大流行从墨西哥蔓延到美洲、欧洲以及其他地区之后,世界卫生组织放弃了对大流行的旧定义:“一种新的病原体在世卫组织区域内的两个或两个以上地区持续人传人。”
        Journalists quibbled with a W.H.O. media representative over the judgment that the spread in both North America and South America did not qualify as pandemic. (They comprise a single W.H.O. region.) And reporters wondered how many cases in Britain constituted “sustained transmission.”        记者们与世卫组织的一名媒体代表就北美和南美(它们构成一个单独的世卫组织区域)的传播不属于大流行的判断展开了争论。记者们还想知道,英国有多少病例构成“持续传播”。
        In February, W.H.O. media representatives said they had given up declaring pandemics so as not to reopen a never-ending discussion.        今年2月,世卫组织的媒体代表表示,他们已经放弃了宣布大流行的做法,以免重新开启一场永无止境的讨论。
        But the usefulness of the term for raising alarm apparently proved irresistible.        但事实证明,这个词对提高警惕的作用是不可低估的。
        The W.H.O. has sought $675 million for the fight against the coronavirus. It has received only $100 million in pledges and $51 million in cash, according to its website.        世卫组织希望为抗击新冠病毒募集6.75亿美元。据该组织网站称,它只收到了1亿美元的捐款承诺和5100万美元现金。
        Dr. Ryan urged countries to hire thousands more contact-tracers, who find everyone known to have come in contact with an infected person and isolate anyone who may be infected. At the height of its outbreak, the city of Wuhan, China, where the pandemic began, had 18,000 contact-tracers working in teams of five.        瑞安敦促各国再雇佣数以千计的接触史追踪者,让他们去寻找所有已知接触过感染者的人,并隔离任何可能感染的人。在疫情最严重的时候,大流行开始的中国武汉市有1.8万名接触史追踪者,每5人一组展开行动。
        Many were government employees who had been reassigned from various government departments and retrained on the job, according to Dr. Bruce Aylward, a W.H.O. assistant director-general who led the agency’s mission to China in February.        世卫组织助理总干事布鲁斯·艾尔沃德今年2月曾率领世卫组织的代表团访问中国,他说,其中许多人都是政府各部门借调并接受了培训。
                
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