中国的新冠疫苗研发能成功吗?_OK阅读网
双语新闻
Bilingual News


双语对照阅读
分级系列阅读
智能辅助阅读
在线英语学习
首页 |  双语新闻 |  双语读物 |  双语名著 | 
[英文] [中文] [双语对照] [双语交替]    []        


中国的新冠疫苗研发能成功吗?
China’s Coronavirus Vaccine Drive Empowers a Troubled Industry

来源:纽约时报    2020-05-06 01:09



        Sign up for NYT Chinese-language Morning Briefing.        (欢迎点击此处订阅NYT简报,我们将在每个工作日发送最新内容至您的邮箱。)
        China wants to beat the world in the race to find a coronavirus vaccine — and, by some measures, it is doing just that.
        中国希望在寻找新冠病毒疫苗的竞争中打败世界——从某种意义上说,它正在做到这一点。
        Desperate to protect its people and to deflect growing international criticism of how it handled the outbreak, it has slashed red tape and offered resources to drug companies. Four Chinese companies have started testing their vaccine candidates on humans, more than the United States and Britain combined.        中国迫切希望保护民众并转移国际上对其疫情应对方式的批评,它削减了繁琐的手续,并在资源上向药企倾斜。四家中国公司已经开始了候选疫苗的人体测试,这超过了美国和英国的总和。
        But China’s leaders have empowered a vaccine industry that has long been mired in quality problems and scandals. Just two years ago, Chinese parents erupted in fury after they discovered ineffective vaccines had been given mostly to babies.        但获得中国领导人大力支持的疫苗行业长期以来被质量问题和丑闻所困扰。就在两年前,中国家长在发现主要用于婴儿的疫苗无效后,引发轩然大波。
        Finding a vaccine isn’t enough. China’s companies must also win over the trust of the public, who might be more inclined to choose a foreign-made vaccine over a Chinese one.        仅仅找到疫苗是不够的。中国的药企还必须赢得公众的信任,公众可能更倾向于选择外国疫苗,而非国产疫苗。
        “The Chinese now do not have confidence in the vaccines produced in China,” said Ray Yip, the former head of the Gates Foundation in China. “That’s probably going to be the biggest headache. If they didn’t have all those incidents, people will probably line up by the miles to get it.”        “中国人现在对在中国制造的疫苗没有信心。”盖茨基金会前中国负责人叶雷(Ray Yip)说。“这可能是最大的麻烦。如果他们没有搞出那些事情,人们可能会排长队去买。”
        The need is urgent. More than 247,000 people have died globally, by official figures as of Monday, and the true count is probably much higher. The coronavirus remains stubbornly difficult to stamp out — even China, which officially appears to have tamed the spread, has suffered from sporadic outbreaks.        人们迫切需要疫苗。根据官方数据,截至周一,全球有24.7万人死亡,而且实际数字可能要高得多。新冠病毒仍然顽固,难以消灭——甚至在似乎已经正式控制住了疫情的中国也有零星的暴发。
        China also wants to deflect accusations that its silencing of early warnings contributed to the global pandemic. Developing a vaccine for the world would, in addition, burnish its standing as a global scientific and medical power.        中国还希望转移因压制早期预警而导致全球大流行的指控。此外,为全世界开发疫苗还将提升其作为全球科学和医疗强国的地位。
        So China has made its vaccine a national priority, though it hasn’t disclosed spending details. One senior official said a vaccine for emergency use could be ready by September. State media has made a celebrity out of Chen Wei, the Chinese military’s top virologist, who is leading one of the vaccine efforts. The public is responding.        因此,中国已将疫苗开发列为国家优先事项,尽管尚无支出细节披露。一位高级官员说,供紧急情况下使用的疫苗可能在9月就绪。官方媒体令率领疫苗开发工作的中国军方高级病毒学家陈薇成为了名人。公众也在作出响应。
        Huang Shiyue, an 18-year-old first-year medical student in Wuhan, left her apartment on a recent early Sunday morning for the first time in three months to take a taxi to a wellness center an hour away. There, she offered up her arm in the name of science.        最近一个周日的早晨,武汉18岁的大一医学生黄诗月三个月来第一次离开公寓,乘出租车来到了一小时以外的保健中心。在那里,她为科学伸出了她的手臂。
        But in an illustration of how difficult it will be to find a safe and effective treatment, Ms. Huang grew dizzy and sick.        但黄石月开始感到头昏和恶心——这说明寻找一个安全有效的治疗方法是多么困难。
        “If I can help and benefit people with one little move,” she said, “then I think this is a very worthwhile thing.”        “如果我的这一点点小举动可以帮助、惠及更多人,”她说,“那么我觉得这个是很划得来的一件事。”
        China’s vaccine drive has put Beijing’s considerable strengths and glaring weaknesses on display. With its firm hand on the levers of Chinese industry, Beijing can corral companies and scientists to reach national goals.        中国的疫苗行动呈现出北京相当大的优势以及明显的劣势。通过坚定地把控中国产业,北京可以把企业和科学家聚集在一起,实现国家目标。
        At the same time, China’s vaccine companies have been accustomed to a closed political system that has a history of covering up safety scandals and protects them from foreign competition. Few invest heavily in research and development, and they have not discovered many products with global impact.        同时,中国的疫苗企业已经习惯于封闭的政治制度,该制度有着掩盖安全丑闻的历史,并保护它免受外国竞争。很少有公司在研发上投入大量资金,而且他们也没有研发出多少具有全球影响力的产品。
        Instead, many invest more in selling and distribution, a large chunk of which includes managing relationships with local disease control centers. Experts say that creates incentives for corruption.        许多公司转而在销售和分销方面投入了更多的资金,其中的很大一部分用于管理与当地疾控中心的关系。专家认为这会滋生腐败。
        China’s regulators also tend to look the other way when it comes to state-owned firms, which make up about 40 percent of the vaccine industry. Many vaccine makers operate with an expectation of impunity, knowing that even if they are found to have produced faulty products, they are unlikely to be shut down.        对于约占疫苗行业40%的国有企业,中国的监管机构也倾向于睁一只眼闭一只眼。许多疫苗生产商有恃无恐地运作,他们知道即使被发现制造了有问题的产品,也不太可能被关停。
        The vaccine that Ms. Huang received is being developed by CanSino Biologics, a Tianjin-based pharmaceutical firm, and the medical science arm of the People’s Liberation Army. The CanSino vaccine was the first to enter Phase 2 trials, which in the hierarchy of drug testing means it is further along than the world’s other candidates, though there is no guarantee that it will be proven effective. (It has been tested so far on 508 people; a candidate from Oxford University in Phase 1 trials, or earlier-stage testing, has been administered to twice as many people.)        黄诗月接受的疫苗注射是由位于天津的制药公司康希诺生物股份公司研发的,该公司附属于中国人民解放军的医学部门。康希诺的疫苗是第一个进入二期试验的疫苗,虽然无法保证最终能证实有效,但在药物测试的进度上,它比世界上其他候选疫苗都要领先。(到目前为止,已对508人进行了测试;一个来自牛津大学的候选疫苗的第一阶段试验——或称早期测试——测试人数是其两倍。)
        One other Chinese institution also has a candidate in Phase 2 testing — the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products, an arm of state-run Sinopharm Group. Sinovac Biotech, a private company and the Beijing Institute of Biological Products, which also belongs to Sinopharm, have potential vaccines in Phase 1 trials.        另一家中国机构——国有企业国药集团旗下的武汉生物制品研究所——也有处于第二阶段测试的候选疫苗。北京科兴生物制品有限公司和同样隶属于国药集团的北京生物制品研究所,均有处于第一阶段测试的潜力疫苗。
        The Wuhan institute was involved in a 2018 scandal in which defective vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and other conditions were injected into hundreds of thousands of babies. China imposed a $1.3 billion fine on another virus maker involved, Changchun Changsheng. The scandal led to the firing of dozens of officials and pledges of a swift industry cleanup.        其中那家武汉机构曾卷入2018年的一桩丑闻——有缺陷的白喉、破伤风、百日咳和其他疾病的疫苗被注射到数十万婴儿体内。中国对另一家涉案疫苗制造商长春长生处以13亿美元罚款。该丑闻导致数十名官员被撤职,政府承诺迅速清理该行业。
        The government confiscated the Wuhan institute’s “illegal income,” fined the company and punished nine executives.        政府没收了武汉生物制品研究所的“非法所得”,对该公司处以罚款,并处罚了九名高管。
        The Wuhan institute has been sued at least twice in China by plaintiffs who have alleged that the institute’s vaccines have caused “abnormal reactions,” according to court documents. In both cases, the court ruled that the Wuhan institute had to partially compensate the victims a total of roughly $71,500. Its executives have been accused at least three times of bribing officials at local centers for disease and control in various provinces to thank them for purchasing their vaccines. The executives were convicted but no criminal charges were pursued against the company.        据法院文件显示,武汉生物制品研究所在中国至少被起诉过两次,原告称该研究所的疫苗引起了“不良反应”。在这两起案件中,法院裁定武汉生物制品研究所向受害者支付总计约7.15万美元的部分赔偿。该公司高管至少三次被指控贿赂地方疾控中心官员,以感谢他们购买疫苗。这些高管被判有罪,但公司没有受到刑事指控。
        Sinovac Biotech had also been involved in a bribery scandal, according to court documents. From 2002 to 2014, a court in Beijing said, the general manager of Sinovac Biotech gave China’s deputy director in charge of drug evaluations nearly $50,000 to help the firm with drug approvals. Sinovac was not charged. The general manager was a man surnamed Yin, the documents showed. Chinese media reports have said that person is the current chief executive, Yin Weidong, who held the title of general manager from 2001 to 2017.        法庭文件显示,科兴生物科技也卷入了一起贿赂丑闻。北京一家法院称,从2002年到2014年,为帮助公司获得药品批准,科兴生物科技有限公司总经理向中国一名负责药品评估的副主任支付了近5万美元。中国科兴没有受到指控。文件显示,这位总经理是一名尹姓男子。中国媒体报道称,此人就是该公司现任首席执行官尹卫东,他曾在2001年至2017年担任公司总经理。
        Sinovac, the Wuhan institute, and its parent, China National Biotec Group, did not respond to requests for comment.        科兴生物科技、武汉生物制品研究所及其母公司中国生物科技集团有限公司没有回复记者的置评请求。
        Despite the companies’ earlier stumbles, the Chinese government has given them permission to accelerate trials. Regulators in the United States and other places have done the same for other companies. The Wuhan institute, Sinovac and the Beijing institute got combined approvals to run the first two phases, a decision questioned by several Chinese scientists, who felt that safety results from the first phase should be evaluated before the second phase was begun.        尽管此前出过这些问题,中国政府还是允许两家公司加速试验。包括美国在内的许多国家的监管机构也对其他公司采取了同样的措施。武汉生物制品研究所、科兴和北京生物制品研究所联合获得了运行前两阶段的许可,这一决定遭到了几位中国科学家的质疑,他们认为在第二阶段开始之前,应该对第一阶段的安全结果进行评估。
        Ding Sheng, the dean of the pharmacy school at Tsinghua University in Beijing, said that some companies were “adopting unconventional methods” in the preclinical research stage, running tasks like the design process and animal modeling at the same time when they should be done consecutively, according to the People’s Daily, the Communist Party’s official newspaper.        根据中国共产党的官方报纸《人民日报》,北京的清华大学药学院院长丁胜说,在临床前研究阶段,一些公司“采取了一些非常规的方法”,将本应串联的工艺设计和动物模型等环节平行推进。
        “I understand the people’s eager anticipation of a vaccine,” Dr. Ding was quoted as saying. “But from a scientific point of view, no matter how anxious we are, we cannot lower our standards.” He did not respond to a request for comment.        “理解人们急切期待疫苗的心情,”丁胜说。“但从科学上看,再急也不能降低标准。”他没有回复记者的置评请求。
        Dr. Chen’s academy issued calls on the internet for phase one volunteers. Ms. Huang successfully registered for the second round on April 10. The next day, she got a call and text message: Please come tomorrow.        陈薇所在的研究院在互联网上呼吁招募第一阶段的志愿者。4月10日,黄石月成功报名参加了第二轮。第二天,她接到一个电话和一条短信:请明天前来。
        “Of course, I was worried at the beginning,” she said. “To say you’re not at all worried is impossible, right?” She surfed the internet and called her teacher, who listed pros and cons. She sought advice from her parents.        “刚刚开始肯定会有担心,”她说。“你要说没有担心那不可能的,对不对?”她上网搜索信息,并给老师打电话,老师为她列出了利弊。她还向父母寻求建议。
        Then she went. Workers ran an antibody test, to make sure she was not already immune to the coronavirus, an H.I.V. test and a pregnancy test.        然后她去了。工作人员对她进行了抗体测试,确保她对冠状病毒没有免疫力,还为她做了HIV和妊娠测试。
        The participants were divided into low- and medium-dose groups and another placebo group, as part of a “double-blind” experiment. They were not told their group.        在这个“双盲”实验中,参与者被分为低、中剂量组以及一个安慰剂组,并且不会被告知自己所在的组别。
        Fifteen minutes after Ms. Huang got her shot, she started to feel dizzy. Her stomach hurt. Her heart began beating fast. She got diarrhea.        黄诗月接受注射15分钟后开始感到头晕。她觉得胃疼,心跳得很快,还出现了腹泻。
        Dr. Chen and other doctors checked her. Someone offered her hot water. She took a walk in the sun. Finally, they took her in an ambulance to a subway station, where she took a taxi home.        陈薇和其他医生给她做了检查。有人给她喝热水。她在阳光下走了走。最后,他们用救护车把她送到地铁站,她在那儿打车回到家中。
        Ms. Huang said she feels fine at home.        黄诗月说她回家后感觉一切都好。
        Shi Zibo, a junior in college, also signed up to be a volunteer and got the shot on April 12. On the fourth day, he got a slight fever but said he has no other side effects.         石子博是一名大三学生,也报名当上了志愿者,并于4月12日接受注射。第四天,他有点发烧,但说自己没有其他副作用。
        “I felt very proud when I received the call,” Mr. Shi said. “There are not many opportunities for me in to contribute to other people in this life, so I will not regret it, regardless of the final result.”        “接到电话的时候感觉很自豪,”石子博说。“这一辈子能这样为大家做贡献的机会也不会很多,所以不管最后结果如何,自己也都不会后悔。”
                
   返回首页                  

OK阅读网 版权所有(C)2017 | 联系我们