他发现了斯大林大清洗的“万人坑”,如今他进了监狱_OK阅读网
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他发现了斯大林大清洗的“万人坑”,如今他进了监狱
He Found One of Stalin’s Mass Graves. Now He’s in Jail.

来源:纽约时报    2020-05-07 06:41



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        SANDARMOKH, Russia — The day began, like many others in her childhood years, with hours of tramping through an insect-infested forest with the family dog while her eccentric father, Yuri Dmitriev, wandered off to hunt in vain for corpses buried among the trees.        俄罗斯桑达莫克——那天一大早,她与家里的狗一起在蚊虫密布的丛林中走了几个小时,她的童年有许多日子是这样开始的。她的父亲尤里·德米特里耶夫(Yuri Dmitriev)则在四处徒劳地搜寻埋在林间的尸体。
        On that day more than 20 years ago, however, Mr. Dmitriev, an amateur but very determined historian, finally found the gruesome prize he had long been searching for — burial mounds containing the remains of political prisoners executed by Stalin’s secret police.        然而,二十多年前的那一天,德米特里耶夫——一位业余但十分执着的历史学家——终于找到了他长久以来一直在寻找的可怖宝藏——埋葬着被斯大林秘密警察处决的政治犯的坟墓。
        “Everything started here,” said Mr. Dmitriev’s 35-year-old daughter, Katerina Klodt, during a recent visit to the forest at Sandarmokh in Karelia, a peninsula in northern Russia. “My dad’s work has clearly made some people very uncomfortable.”        “一切都是从这里开始的,”近日来到俄罗斯北部卡累利阿半岛上的桑达莫克森林时,德米特里耶夫35岁的女儿凯特琳娜·克洛特(Katerina Klodt)说。“我父亲的工作显然让一些人感到非常不舒服。”
        Mr. Dmitriev is now in jail, awaiting trial on what his family, friends and supporters dismiss as blatantly fabricated charges of pedophilia, an accusation that has frequently been used to discredit and silence voices the Russian authorities do not like.        德米特里耶夫目前已入狱,正在等待审判。他被指控恋童,而他的家人、朋友和支持者均认为这是公然的捏造,这种指控常常被用来抹黑和压制俄罗斯当局不喜欢的声音。
        An official in Karelia, Mr. Dmitriev’s home region next to Finland, complained last year that the jailed historian’s life work — the commemoration of Stalin’s victims at Sandarmokh forest — had created an “unfounded sense of guilt” and been used by “foreign powers for propaganda against Russia.”        与芬兰相邻的卡累利阿是德米特里耶夫的家乡,该地区的一名官员去年抱怨说,这名被监禁的历史学家的毕生工作——纪念埋葬在桑达莫克森林中的斯大林受害者——造成了一种“毫无根据的内疚感”,并被“外国势力利用以对俄罗斯进行负面宣传”。
        In pursuit of a guilt-free version of Russia’s past, men in camouflage uniforms visited the same forest last summer to do their own digging, uncovering the remains of 16 corpses that they hope will prove that the killing at Sandarmokh was, at least in part, the work of foreigners, not just the Soviet secret police.        为了塑造一个无罪的俄罗斯历史,去年夏天,一些身穿迷彩服的男子也来到这片森林挖掘,找出了16具尸体的遗骸,希望以此证明,在桑达莫克森林中的杀戮至少有一部分是外国人所为,不全是出自苏联秘密警察之手。
        Sponsored by the Military Historical Society, a state-funded organization notorious for its nationalist take on Russian history, the diggers were looking for evidence to support a highly contested theory put forward by two Karelia historians. They argue that the thousands of people buried at Sandarmokh are not all Stalin’s victims but also include Soviet soldiers executed by the Finnish Army during World War II.        挖掘工作由国家资助的军事史学会(Military Historical Society)赞助,该学会以其对俄罗斯历史的民族主义解读而臭名昭著,挖掘者是在寻找证据以支持两位卡累利阿历史学家提出的一个争议性理论。他们认为,埋葬在桑达莫克森林的数千人不全是斯大林的受害者,其中还包括了二战时被芬兰军队处决的苏联士兵。
        With the approaching 75th anniversary on May 9 of the Red Army’s victory over Nazi Germany and its allies like Finland, the suffering inflicted on Russia by its own rulers in the Kremlin has become an unwanted distraction from memories of the country’s immense wartime sacrifice against foreign enemies.        随着5月9日红军战胜纳粹德国以及芬兰这样的盟国的胜利纪念日临近,俄罗斯正沉浸在战时为反抗外国侵略者而牺牲的回忆中,克里姆林宫的统治者对自己国家造成的苦难,此时已成为一种不受欢迎的杂音。
        President Vladimir V. Putin and his officials do not deny the horrors of the Stalin era, but intent on convincing Russians that their country is besieged by external foes, want them focused instead on crimes committed by foreign aggressors. The coronavirus pandemic has derailed plans for a huge military parade through central Moscow, but state news media has already been saturated for months with daily reports about Russian suffering and heroism during what is known in Russia as the Great Patriotic War.        弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)总统及其官员并不否认斯大林时代的恐怖,但他们企图说服俄罗斯人,他们的国家正被外敌包围,要他们专注于外国侵略者犯下的罪行。虽然新冠疫情打乱了莫斯科市中心的大规模阅兵计划,但是连续几个月以来,官方新闻媒体每天全是有关“伟大的卫国战争”期间俄罗斯的苦难和英雄主义的报道。
        Mr. Dmitriev, meanwhile, has been sitting in a pretrial detention center in Petrozavodsk, the capital of Karelia. Late last month, a municipal court — sealed off to visitors because of the coronavirus — extended his detention for another three months.        与此同时,德米特里耶夫一直关在卡累利阿首府彼得罗扎沃茨克的审前拘留中心。上个月下旬,一个因疫情而封闭的市法院将他的拘留又延长了三个月。
        A few days later, the curator of a museum near Sandarmokh, who had supported Mr. Dmitriev’s work and had also been jailed on pedophilia charges, died in a prison hospital from an unspecified illness.        几天后,桑达莫克附近一家博物馆的馆长因不明疾病在监狱医院死亡,他曾支持德米特列耶夫的工作,并同样因为被指控恋童而入狱。
        Ms. Klodt said she had no doubt about her father’s innocence and blamed his travails on his stubborn insistence that all victims be remembered, not just those killed by foreigners. Sitting on a bench near a tree pinned with an American flag commemorating a man from San Francisco executed in Stalin’s Great Terror, she pointed with disgust at a snow-covered hole dug by the Military Historical Society as part of its search for Russians killed by Finland.        克洛特说她毫不怀疑父亲的清白,并认为这都是因为他执意要铭记所有的受害者,而不仅仅是被外国人杀害的那些。她坐在一棵树旁的长椅上,上面钉着一面美国国旗,以纪念在斯大林大清洗时期中被处决的一名旧金山人,她厌恶地指着一个冰雪覆盖的洞,那是军事史学会为了寻找被芬兰军队杀害的俄罗斯人而挖的。
        “I am so tired of this circus,” she said. “I don’t understand what they are trying to prove.”        “我受够了这套把戏,”她说。“我不明白他们想要证明什么。”
        Anatoli Razumov, director of the Center for Recovered Names in St. Petersburg and co-author with Mr. Dmitriev of a book listing the names of more than 6,000 people killed by Stalin’s secret police in or near Sandarmokh, described the hunt for evidence of Finnish atrocities as part of a propaganda campaign by nationalists backed by the Russian state to create “hybrid history.”        位于圣彼得堡的找回名字中心(Center for Recovered Names)主任安纳托利·拉祖莫夫(Anatoli Razumov)与德米特里耶夫合著了一本书,其中列出了6000多名在桑达莫克一带被斯大林的秘密警察杀害的人的名字,他说寻找芬兰人暴行证据的活动是受俄罗斯政府支持的民族主义者创造“混合历史”的一种宣传攻势。
        The aim, he said, is to muddy clear facts about Russia’s past by mixing them with nationalist tropes and wild conjecture designed to confuse and distort. The same tactics, he added, are being used to muddle the history of Russia’s most infamous killing ground, Katyn Forest, where Stalin’s secret police, the N.K.V.D., in 1940 executed more than 20,000 Polish military officers, clerics and intellectuals.        他说,其目的是将有关俄罗斯历史的清晰事实与民族主义修辞以及旨在混淆和歪曲事实的胡言乱语混合在一起。他还说,同样的策略也被用来搅乱俄罗斯最臭名昭著的刑场卡廷森林的历史——1940年,斯大林的秘密警察机构内务人民委员部(NKVD)在那里处决了两万多名波兰军官、神职人员和知识分子。
        The Military Historical Society has been in the vanguard of an effort to rewrite this grim episode, too, reviving a discredited Soviet claim that Hitler’s army was at least partly to blame for the Katyn massacre.        军事史学会也一直在带头努力改写这一残酷事件,他们重新翻出了苏联的一种不可信的说法,即希特勒的军队至少要对卡廷惨案负部分责任。
        Mr. Dmitriev, 64, was first arrested on pedophilia charges in December 2016, shortly after historians close to the historical society began challenging his findings at Sandarmokh.        现年64岁的德米特里耶夫于2016年12月首次因恋童指控被捕,此前不久,和军事史学会关系密切的历史学家开始质疑他在桑达莫克的发现。
        A court in Petrozavodsk cleared him in 2018 of all charges relating to nine photographs of his adopted youngest daughter, Natalia, that prosecutors described as pornographic. The defense, backed by expert testimony, argued that the pictures, found on Mr. Dmitriev’s home computer, had been taken simply to monitor the medical condition of a girl who, at the time of her adoption, had malnutrition and severe developmental problems.        彼得罗扎沃茨克的一家法院在2018年撤销了对他的所有指控,这些指控与他收养的小女儿纳塔莉亚(Natalia)的九张照片有关,检方称这些都是色情照片。在专家证词的支持下,辩方称在德米特里耶夫的电脑上发现的这些照片,只是用来观察这名女孩的健康状况,她在被收养时患有营养不良和严重的发育问题。
        Citing unspecified “new circumstances,” Karelia’s highest court in 2018 voided the acquittal and ordered a retrial. Mikhail Anufriev, Mr. Dmitriev’s lawyer, said he had hoped for a final ruling in coming weeks but, with Russian judges mostly confined to their homes because of the coronavirus, he worries about his client getting stuck indefinitely in a crowded detention center and at serious risk of infection.        2018年,卡累利阿最高法院以未指明的“新情况”为由宣布此前的无罪释放无效,并下令重审。德米特里耶夫的律师米哈伊尔·阿努夫耶夫(Mikhail Anufriev)说,他原本以为在未来几周会做出最终裁决,但由于俄罗斯法官大多因冠状病毒而待在家里,他担心自己的当事人会被无限期地困在一个拥挤的看守所里,面临严重的感染风险。
        “This whole case is a horror,” said Natalia Pakentis, a former ballet dancer in Petrozavodsk who credits Mr. Dmitriev with helping find out that her long-lost grandfather had been executed at Sandarmokh in 1938. “Millions of people were killed and they all have families. How can we now pretend that none of this really happened?”        “整个案件令人震惊,”曾在彼得罗扎沃茨克当芭蕾舞演员的娜塔莉亚·帕克提斯(Natalia Pakentis)说。她曾说德米特里耶夫帮助查明了她失散多年的祖父于1938年在桑达莫克被处决的事实。“数百万人被杀,他们都有家人。我们现在怎么能假装这些都没有发生呢?”
        That hundreds of thousands of people were executed by Stalin’s N.K.V.D. secret police — a forerunner of the K.G.B., which Mr. Putin joined straight out of college — was hardly a secret when Mr. Dmitriev began his search for bones in the 1990s. It had been common knowledge for decades.        成千上万人被斯大林的内务部秘密警察处死——该部门是普京大学毕业后加入的克格勃组织的前身——1990年代德米特里耶夫开始寻找遗骨时,这件事几乎不是什么秘密。几十年来,这一直是一种常识。
        Yet, until he discovered the mass graves at Sandarmokh, few of the killing fields had been found. Even those that were known about — like an N.K.V.D. execution ground in the Siberian village of Kolpashevo, discovered in 1979 when a nearby river dislodged more than 1,000 mummified corpses — had often been covered up by officials or overshadowed by war memorials celebrating Soviet heroism.        然而,在他发现桑达莫克的万人坑之前,很少有刑场被发现。即便是那些已知的地方——比如西伯利亚村庄科尔帕谢沃的一个内务部刑场,1979年因附近的一条河流冲刷出1000多具干尸而曝光——也经常被官员掩盖,或被颂扬苏联英雄主义的战争纪念碑遮掩。
        At the time of his initial arrest, Mr. Dmitriev was chairman of the Karelia branch of Memorial, a group that has infuriated Russian nationalists by focusing on the suffering visited on Russians, Ukrainians and others by the secret police instead of by foreigners. The Russian authorities branded Memorial a “foreign agent” in 2012, and the group has been demonized since by the state-controlled news media as a Western-backed nest of depraved traitors.        最初被捕时,德米特里耶夫是“纪念”(Memorial)组织的卡雷利亚分会主席,该组织关注的是秘密警察而不是外国人对俄罗斯人、乌克兰人和其他人造成的苦难,从而激怒了俄罗斯民族主义者。2012年,俄罗斯当局将“纪念”组织定性为“外国代理人”,此后,国家控制的新闻媒体将它妖魔化,称其为西方支持的堕落卖国组织。
        Irina Takala, a historian at Petrozavodsk University, said the theory that Soviet soldiers were buried at Sandarmokh had no factual basis but “fits into an unfortunate trend of trying to show that Russia is always the victim, never the perpetrator.”        彼得罗扎沃茨克大学(Petrozavodsk University)的历史学家伊丽娜·塔卡拉(Irina Takala)表示,苏联士兵被埋葬在桑达莫克的说法没有事实依据,但它“符合一种不幸的趋势,即试图表明俄罗斯永远是受害者,而不是作恶者”。
        The main promoters of this theory are her boss, Sergei Verigin, the head of the university’s history department, and another historian at the university, Yuri Kilin. Both are members of the Military Historical Society.        这一理论的主要推动者是她的上司、该校历史系主任谢尔盖·韦利金(Sergei Verigin),以及该校的另一位历史学家尤里·吉林(Yuri Kilin)。两人都是军事史学会成员。
        In an interview in Petrozavodsk, Mr. Verigin, the co-author of a recently published book titled “The Riddles of Sandarmokh,” insisted that he was not trying to deny Stalin-era atrocities or prove that the forest did not contain the remains of innocent people murdered by the Soviet secret police.        在彼得罗扎沃茨克接受采访时,韦利金坚称他并不是要否认斯大林时代的暴行,也不是要证明森林里没有被苏联秘密警察杀害的无辜者的遗体。韦利金即将出版与人合著的书《桑达莫克之谜》(The Riddles of Sandarmokh)。
        But, he added, their number has been vastly exaggerated by “so-called democratic forces who want to politicize” history and obscure the crimes of Russia’s enemies during World War II. Mr. Kilin, in a telephone interview, accused “extreme liberals” of constantly raising the number of Stalin’s victims in an effort to “denigrate our past and darken our future.”        但是他还说,受害者的人数被“想要将历史政治化的所谓民主力量”严重夸大了,而且掩盖了俄罗斯的敌人在二战期间犯下的罪行。吉林在接受电话采访时指责“极端自由派”不断增加斯大林受害者的数量,目的是“诋毁我们的过去,让我们的未来变得黑暗”。
        The idea that Soviet soldiers executed by Finnish forces are also buried at Sandarmokh, Mr. Verigin said, “is just a hypothesis” based on N.K.V.D. archives that were opened in 2016 to selected scholars by the Federal Security Service, as the security service is now called. Digging by the Military Historical Society, he added, will help prove his theory.        韦利金说,认为被芬兰军队处决的苏联士兵也葬在桑达莫克的说法“只是一种假设”,是基于2016年被联邦安全局(内务部现在的名称)向其选定的学者开放的内务部档案得出的。他还说,军事史学会的挖掘将有助于证明他的理论。
        He declined to comment on the pedophilia charges against Mr. Dmitriev, saying that “justice should be allowed to run its course.”        他拒绝就针对德米特里耶夫的恋童指控发表评论,只是说“正义应该得到伸张”。
        The remains uncovered in last year’s search for the remains of Soviet soldiers killed by Finland have been sent to the Investigative Committee, Russia’s equivalent of the F.B.I., for forensic analysis, but the results have not been announced.        去年在搜索被芬兰杀害的苏联士兵遗体行动中发现的遗体,已被送往调查委员会(相当于俄罗斯的联邦调查局),但结果尚未公布。
        In a scholarly rebuttal of the theory put forward by Mr. Verigin and Mr. Kilin, Antti Kujala, a historian at the University of Helsinki and authority on the war, concluded that their “hypothesis,” along with the jailing of Mr. Dmitriev and the recent excavations at Sandarmokh aimed at undoing his work, suggested “an attempt to belittle and downplay Stalin’s mass murders, to rouse suspicion about the work of Memorial and also to intimidate and silence the people who have been active in the organization.”        赫尔辛基大学(University of Helsinki)历史学家、这场战争的权威专家安蒂·库雅拉(Antti Kujala)对韦利金和吉林的理论进行了学术上的反驳,他指出他们的“假说”、德米特里耶夫遭到的监禁、以及最近在桑达莫克的发掘活动都是旨在毁灭他的工作,是在“企图贬低和淡化斯大林的大屠杀,引起人们对‘纪念’组织工作的怀疑,并恐吓和压制该组织的活跃人士。”
        As the court in Petrozavodsk resumed its hearing of Mr. Dmitriev’s case behind closed doors, Dmitry Tsvibel, an old friend of the jailed historian and chairman of the town’s Jewish community, invited the small group of well-wishers outside the courthouse for lunch in a nearby synagogue. There were fewer people than usual, he said, because the coronavirus had kept some of Mr. Dmitriev’s supporters, many of them elderly, at home.        等到彼得罗扎沃茨克法院对德米特里耶夫的案件进行闭门重审时,这位被监禁的历史学家的老友、该市犹太社区的主席德米特里·茨维贝尔(Dmitry Tsvibel)邀请了法院外的一小群支持者到附近的犹太会堂吃午饭。他说,来的人比平时少,因为冠状病毒让德米特里耶夫的一些支持者居家不出,其中很多是老年人。
        “Everyone understands what is going on here,” Mr. Tsvibel said. “This whole case is absurd. It not only has a political background, but is a political hit job.”        “所有人都明白这里发生了什么,”茨维贝尔说。“整个案子很荒谬。不仅有政治背景,还是一种政治打击。”
                
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